Die 5 Minuten Evidenz - Cochrane Ausgabe 1/2012

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Ausgabe 1/2012 der Cochrane Library


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Aktivität Atmung Augen
Chirurgie Frauen Haut
Herz, Kreislauf, CVD Infektion Kinder
Knochen Krebs Neurologie/
Schmerz Sucht Urologie
Zahn Diverses


pfeil.gifZu ausgewählten Updates mit veränderter klinischer Konsequenz



  • Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise
    17 Studien (n= 366)
    There was some evidence that cold-water immersion reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after exercise compared with passive interventions involving rest or no intervention. There was insufficient evidence to conclude on other outcomes or for other comparisons. The majority of trials did not undertake active surveillance of pre-defined adverse events. High quality, well reported research in this area is required.


  • Interventions for atrophic rhinitis
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There is no evidence from randomised controlled trials concerning the long-term benefits or risks of different treatment modalities for atrophic rhinitis. Further high-quality research into this chronic disease, with a longer follow-up period, is therefore required to establish this conclusively.
  • Surgery for congenital choanal atresia
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There is no definitive evidence, based on randomized controlled trials, to demonstrate the potential advantages and disadvantages of any specific surgical technique for patients with choanal atresia. Specialists should unify their efforts in multicenter randomized controlled trials that test the effectiveness and safety of different surgical techniques in patients with choanal atresia.
  • Timing of hypertonic saline inhalation for cystic fibrosis
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    This review did not identify any evidence comparing the timing of hypertonic saline inhalation in relation to airway clearance physiotherapy. Until such evidence becomes available, clinicians could advise patients to inhale hypertonic saline before airway clearance, because this is the only regimen evaluated in the studies that established the efficacy of the use of hypertonic saline.
  • Airway clearance techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    28 Studien (n= 907)
    Evidence from this review indicates that airway clearance techniques are safe for individuals with COPD and confer small beneficial effects on some clinical outcomes. Consideration may be given to the use of airway clearance techniques for patients with COPD in both acute and stable disease, however current studies suggest that the benefits achieved may be small.
  • Early versus late tracheostomy for critically ill patients
    4 Studien (n= 673)
    Updated evidence is of low quality, and potential differences between early and late tracheostomy need to be better investigated by means of randomized controlled trials. At present there is no specific information about any subgroup or individual characteristics potentially associated with better outcomes with either early or late tracheostomy.


  • Interventions for age-related visual problems in patients with stroke
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There are no implications for practice arising from this review. Evidence relating to the management of patients (from the general population) with age-related visual problems is available from other Cochrane reviews and is likely to be the best evidence available for making treatment decisions about individual patients. Subgroup analyses within these reviews to explore the effect of interventions for age-related visual problems in patients with stroke are recommended. We recommend that the objectives and selection criteria for this Cochrane review are amended and clarified prior to any future updates.


  • Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis
    2 Studien (n= 111)
    For patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis and dilated pancreatic duct, this review showed that surgery is superior to endoscopy in terms of pain control. Morbidity and mortality seemed not to differ between the two intervention modalities, but the small trials identified do not provide sufficient power to detect the small differences expected in this outcome.
    Regarding the comparison of surgical intervention versus conservative treatment, this review has shown that surgical intervention in an early stage of chronic pancreatitis seems to be a promising approach in terms of pain control and pancreatic function. Confirmation of these results is needed in other trials due to the methodological limitations and limited number of patients of the present evidence.
  • Intramedullary nailing for tibial shaft fractures in adult
    9 Studien (n= 2093)
    Overall, there is insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions on the best type of, or technique for, intramedullary nailing for tibial shaft fractures in adults. 'Moderate' quality evidence suggests that there is no clear difference in the rate of major re-operations and complications between reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Reamed intramedullary nailing has, however, a lower incidence of implant failure than unreamed nailing. 'Low' quality evidence suggests that reamed nailing may reduce the incidence of major re-operations related to non-union in closed fractures rather than in open fractures. 'Low' quality evidence suggests that the Ender nail has poorer results in terms of re-operation and malunion than an interlocking nail.
  • Single layer versus double layer suture anastomosis of the gastrointestinal tract
    7 Studien (n= 842)
    SGIA can be performed quicker as compared to double layer GIA. SGIA is comparable to DGIA in terms of anastomotic leak, peri-operative complications, mortality and hospital stay. SGIA may routinely be used for GIA following bowel resection. However, since this conclusion is derived from smaller number of patients recruited in relatively moderate quality trials, further trials should be aimed to reduce the limitations of this review.
  • Distal aortic perfusion during thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair for prevention of paraplegiaReviewNew
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    Currently, there are no randomised controlled trials to support the role of distal aortic perfusion in TAAA surgery for prevention of neurological injury. However, randomised controlled trials are not always feasible based on ethical grounds. Observational studies suggest that distal aortic perfusion alone or in combination with other adjuncts, that is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, reduces the rate of neurologic deficit across all types of TAAA; in particular making a striking difference in the rate of neurologic deficit following type II TAAA repair. In the absence of randomised controlled trials, we recommend a standardised approach to reporting through registry studies to strengthen the evidence base for distal aortic perfusion.
  • Techniques of flushing and reperfusion for liver transplantation
    6 Studien (n= 418)
    There is currently no evidence to support or refute the use of any specific technique of flushing or reperfusion during liver transplantation. Due to the paucity of data, absence of evidence should not be confused with evidence of absence of any differences. Further well designed trials with low risk of systematic error and low risk of random errors are necessary.


  • Interventions for pregnant women with hyperglycaemia not meeting gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes diagnostic criteria
    4 Studien (n= 543)
    This review found interventions including providing dietary advice and blood glucose level monitoring for women with pregnancy hyperglycaemia not meeting GDM and T2DM diagnostic criteria helped reduce the number of macrosomic and LGA babies without increasing caesarean section and operative vaginal birth rates. It is important to notice that the results of this review were based on four small randomised trials with moderate to high risk of bias without follow-up outcomes for both women and their babies.
  • Robotic assisted surgery for gynaecological cancer
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    Well-designed RCTs are required as only low quality evidence from CCTs is available. These studies support the use of robotic assisted surgery for endometrial cancer and cervical cancer, but these findings present a high risk of bias.
  • Cabergoline for preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
    2 Studien (n= 230)
    Cabergoline appears to reduce the risk of OHSS in high-risk women, especially for moderate OHSS. The use of cabergoline does not affect the pregnancy outcome (clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate), nor is there an increased risk of adverse events. Further research should consider the risk of administering cabergoline and the comparison between cabergoline and established treatments (such as intravenous albumin and coasting). Large, well-designed and well-executed RCTs that involve more clinical endpoints are necessary to further evaluate the role of cabergoline in OHSS prevention.
  • Cardiotocography versus intermittent auscultation of fetal heart on admission to labour ward for assessment of fetal wellbeing
    4 Studien (n über 13.000)
    Contrary to continued use in some clinical areas, we found no evidence of benefit for the use of the admission cardiotocograph (CTG) for low-risk women on admission in labour.
    We found no evidence of benefit for the use of the admission CTG for low-risk women on admission in labour. Furthermore, the probability is that admission CTG increases the caesarean section rate by approximately 20%. The data lacked power to detect possible important differences in perinatal mortality. However, it is unlikely that any trial, or meta-analysis, will be adequately powered to detect such differences. The findings of this review support recommendations that the admission CTG not be used for women who are low risk on admission in labour. Women should be informed that admission CTG is likely associated with an increase in the incidence of caesarean section without evidence of benefit.
  • Intramuscular versus intravenous prophylactic oxytocin for the third stage of labour
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There is no evidence from randomised trials to evaluate the comparative benefits and risks of intramuscular and intravenous oxytocin when given to prevent excessive blood loss after vaginal birth. Randomised trials with adequate design and sample sizes are needed to assess whether the route of prophylactic oxytocin after vaginal birth affects maternal or infant outcomes. Such trials should be large enough to detect clinically important differences in major side effects reported in observational studies and also to consider the acceptability of the intervention to mothers and providers as important outcomes.
  • Robotic surgery for benign gynaecological disease
    2 Studien (n= 158)
    Currently, the limited evidence showed that robotic surgery did not benefit women with benign gynaecological disease in effectiveness or in safety. Further well-designed RCTs with complete reported data are required to confirm or refute this conclusion.
  • Short and long term effects of tibolone in postmenopausal women
    Je nach Endpunkt bis zu 15 RCT
    Tibolone, used at the daily dose of 2.5 mg, may be less effective than combined HT in alleviating menopausal symptoms although it reduced the incidence of vaginal bleeding. There was evidence that treatment with combined HT was more effective in managing menopausal symptoms than was tibolone. Available data on the long term safety of tibolone is concerning given the increase in the risk of breast cancer in women who had already suffered from breast cancer in the past and in a separate trial the increase in the risk of stroke in women whose mean age was over 60 years. Similar concerns may exist for estroprogestins but their overall benefit-risk profile is better known and is more directly related to women with menopausal symptoms.
  • Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy
    6 Studien (n=1023)
    Vitamin D supplementation in a single or continued dose during pregnancy increases serum vitamin D concentrations as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D at term. The clinical significance of this finding and the potential use of this intervention as a part of routine antenatal care are yet to be determined as the number of high quality trials and outcomes reported is too limited to draw conclusions on its usefulness and safety. Further rigorous randomised trials are required to evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy.
  • Antibiotics prior to embryo transfer in ART
    1 Studie
    This review suggests that the administration of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid prior to embryo transfer reduced upper genital tract microbial contamination but did not alter clinical pregnancy rates. The effect of this intervention on live birth is unknown. There are no data from randomised controlled trials to support or refute other antibiotic regimens in this setting.
  • Centralisation of services for gynaecological cancer
    5 retrospektive Beobachtungsstudien
    We found low quality, but consistent evidence to suggest that women with gynaecological cancer who received treatment in specialised centres had longer survival than those managed elsewhere. The evidence was stronger for ovarian cancer than for other gynaecological cancers.
  • Follow-up for improving psychological well being for women after a miscarriage
    6 Studien (n= 1001)
    Evidence is insufficient to demonstrate that psychological support such as counselling is effective post-miscarriage. Further trials should be good quality, adequately-powered using standardised interventions and outcome measures at specific time points. The economic implications and women's satisfaction with psychological follow-up should also be explored in any future study.
  • Micronutrient supplementation in pregnant women with HIV infection
    4 Studien
    Specific recommendations for pregnant and lactating women infected with HIV would be to include the provision of multivitamin supplements in single RDA formulations during the antenatal period and at least for 6 weeks post-partum, especially for women who are breast-feeding.
    There is no conclusive evidence to provide stand-alone zinc or selenium supplementation to HIV-infected pregnant and lactating women.
    Micronutrient supplementation should not be used as a substitute for provision of recommended antiretroviral medication for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV and treating maternal HIV infection when this is recommended.
  • Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews
    15 Cochrane Reviews mit 155 Studien
    Most methods of non-pharmacological pain management are non-invasive and appear to be safe for mother and baby, however, their efficacy is unclear, due to limited high quality evidence. In many reviews, only one or two trials provided outcome data for analysis and the overall methodological quality of the trials was low. High quality trials are needed.
    There is more evidence to support the efficacy of pharmacological methods, but these have more adverse effects. Thus, epidural analgesia provides effective pain relief but at the cost of increased instrumental vaginal birth.
  • Perioperative antibiotics to prevent infection after first-trimester abortion
    19 Studien
    Antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of first trimester surgical abortion is effective in preventing post-abortal upper genital tract infection. Evidence of between trial heterogeneity suggests that the effect might not apply to all settings, population groups or interventions.
    This review did not determine the most effective antibiotic prophylaxis regimen. Antibiotic choice should take into account the local epidemiology of genital tract infections, including sexually transmitted infections.
  • Strategies for improving the acceptability and acceptance of the copper intrauterine device
    9 Studien (n= 7960)
    Community-based interventions and antenatal contraceptive counselling improved uptake of copper IUD contraception. Since the copper IUD is one of the most effective reversible contraceptive methods, primary care and family planning and practitioners could consider adopting these interventions. Although our review suggests these interventions are clinically effective, a cost-benefit analysis may be required to evaluate applicability.


  • Alginate dressings for healing diabetic foot ulcers
    6 Studien (n=375)
    Currently there is no research evidence to suggest that alginate wound dressings are more effective in healing foot ulcers in people with diabetes than other types of dressing however many trials in this field are very small. Decision makers may wish to consider aspects such as dressing cost and the wound management properties offered by each dressing type e.g. exudate management.
  • Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds
    7 Studien (n=347)
    There is currently an absence of high quality clinical trial evidence to support the use of Aloe vera topical agents or Aloe vera dressings as treatments for acute and chronic wounds.

  • Dietary supplements for established atopic eczema
    11 Studien (n=596)
    There is no convincing evidence of the benefit of dietary supplements in eczema, and they cannot be recommended for the public or for clinical practice at present. Whilst some may argue that at least supplements do not do any harm, high doses of vitamin D may give rise to serious medical problems, and the cost of long-term supplements may also mount up.
  • Hydrocolloid dressings for healing diabetic foot ulcers
    4 Studien (n=511)
    Currently there is no research evidence to suggest that any type of hydrocolloid wound dressing is more effective in healing diabetic foot ulcers than other types of dressing. Decision makers may wish to consider aspects such as dressing cost and the wound management properties offered by each dressing type e.g. exudate management.
  • Histamine H2-receptor antagonists for urticaria
    4 Studien (n=144)
    The very limited evidence provided by this review was based on a few old studies of a relatively small size, which we categorised as having high to unclear risk of bias. Thus, at present, the review does not allow confident decision-making about the use of H2-receptor antagonists for urticaria. Although some of these studies have reported a measure of relief of symptoms of urticaria and rather minimal clinical improvement in some of the participants, the evidence was weak and unreliable. We have emphasised the lack of precision and limitations in the reported data where appropriate in this review.
  • Interventions for treating phosphorus burn
    2 nicht randomisierte Vergleichsstudien
    These two comparative studies provide no evidence to support the use of copper sulphate in managing phosphorus burns. Indeed the small amount of available evidence suggests that it may be harmful.

Herz, Kreislauf, CVD

  • Continuous glucose monitoring systems for type 1 diabetes mellitus
    21 Studien
    There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use in children, adults and patients with poorly controlled diabetes. The largest improvements in glycaemic control were seen for sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy in patients with poorly controlled diabetes who had not used an insulin pump before. The risk of severe hypoglycaemia or ketoacidosis was not significantly increased for CGM users, but as these events occurred infrequent these results have to be interpreted cautiously.There are indications that higher compliance of wearing the CGM device improves glycosylated haemoglobin A1c level (HbA1c) to a larger extent.
  • Parenteral versus oral iron therapy for adults and children with chronic kidney disease
    20 Studien (n= 2098)
    The included studies provide strong evidence for increased ferritin and transferrin saturation levels, together with a small increase in haemoglobin, in patients with CKD who were treated with IV iron compared with oral iron. From a limited body of evidence, we identified a significant reduction in ESA requirements in patients treated with IV iron, and found no significant difference in mortality. Adverse effects were reported in only 50% of included studies. We therefore suggest that further studies that focus on patient-centred outcomes are needed to determine if the use of IV iron is justified on the basis of reductions in ESA dose and cost, improvements in patient quality of life, and with few serious adverse effects.
  • Pentoxifylline for intermittent claudication
    23 Studien (n= 2816)
    Given the generally poor quality of the published studies and the large degree of heterogeneity in the interventions and the results, the overall benefit of pentoxifylline for patients with Fontaine class II intermittent claudication remains uncertain. Pentoxifylline is generally well tolerated.
    Based on the totality of the available evidence, it is possible that pentoxifylline could have a place in the treatment of IC as a means of improving walking distance and as a complimentary treatment assuming all other essential measures such as lifestyle change, exercise and treatment for secondary prevention have been taken into account. However, the response to pentoxifylline should be assessed on an individual basis.
  • Pentoxifylline for diabetic kidney disease
    17 Studien (n= 991)
    From the available evidence, pentoxifylline seems to offer some beneficial effects in renal function improvement and reduction in albuminuria and proteinuria, with no obvious serious adverse effects for patients with DKD. However, most studies were poorly reported, small, and methodologically flawed. Evidence to support the use of pentoxifylline for DKD was insufficient to develop recommendations for its use in this patient population.
  • Pycnogenol® for the treatment of chronic disorders
    15 Studien (n= 791)
    Current evidence is insufficient to support Pycnogenol® use for the treatment of any chronic disorder. Well-designed, adequately powered trials are needed to establish the value of this treatment.
  • Sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus
    3 Studien (n= 140)
    There is insufficient evidence to recommend sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Improvement in trial methodology as well as addressing the issues of standardization and the quality control of preparations of other varieties of sweet potato are required.
  • Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for ischaemic heart disease
    86 Studien (n= 10716)
    Our systematic review did not demonstrate any significant benefit of off-pump compared with on-pump CABG regarding mortality, stroke, or myocardial infarction. In contrast, we observed better long-term survival in the group of patients undergoing on-pump CABG with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. Based on the current evidence, on-pump CABG should continue to be the standard surgical treatment. However, off-pump CABG may be acceptable when there are contraindications for cannulation of the aorta and cardiopulmonary bypass.


  • Material incentives and enablers in the management of tuberculosis
    11 Studien
    There is limited evidence to support the use of material incentives to improve return rates for tuberculosis diagnostic test results and adherence to antituberculosis preventive therapy. The data are currently limited to trials among predominantly male drug users, homeless, and prisoner subpopulations in the USA, and therefore the results are not easily generalised to the wider adult population, or to low- and middle-income countries, where the tuberculosis burden is highest.
  • Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children
    25 Studien
    We found a high risk of publication and reporting biases in the trial programme of oseltamivir. Sub-population analyses of the influenza infected population in the oseltamivir trial programme are not possible because the two arms are non-comparable due to oseltamivir's apparent interference with antibody production. The evidence supports a direct oseltamivir mechanism of action on symptoms but we are unable to draw conclusions about its effect on complications or transmission. We expect full clinical study reports containing study protocol, reporting analysis plan, statistical analysis plan and individual patient data to clarify outstanding issues. These full clinical study reports are at present unavailable to us.
  • Antibiotics for leptospirosis
    7 Studien
    Insufficient evidence is available to advocate for or against the use of antibiotics in the therapy for leptospirosis.
  • Behavioral interventions to reduce the transmission of HIV infection among sex workers and their clients in low- and middle-income countries
    13 Studien (n= 8698)
    Available evidence nevertheless suggests that compared with standard care or no intervention, behavioral interventions are effective in reducing HIV and the incidence of STIs amongst female sex workers (FSWs). Given the benefits of social cognitive theory and the promotion of condom use in reducing HIV/STI and the public health need to control transmission amongst FSWs, there is a clear finding in favour of behavioral interventions. However, it should be recognized that there is a lack of information about most other outcomes and target populations, and that all of the trials were conducted in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Effectiveness and safety of first-line tenofovir + emtricitabine + efavirenz for patients with HIV
    1 Studie (n= 517)
    Only one trial has shown beneficial effects and safety of TDF+ FTC + EFV as first-line treatment for patients with HIV. The effects and safety of TDF + FTC + EFV as first-line treatment for patients with HIV cannot be assessed on the basis of only one trial. Further studies evaluating the effects and safety of TDF + FTC + EFV as first-line treatment for patients with HIV are needed.
  • Mobile phone text messaging for promoting adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection
    2 Studien
    There is high-quality evidence from the two RCTs that mobile phone text-messaging at weekly intervals is efficacious in enhancing adherence to ART, compared to standard care. There is high quality evidence from one trial that weekly mobile phone text-messaging is efficacious in improving HIV viral load suppression. Policy-makers should consider funding programs proposing to provide weekly mobile phone text-messaging as a means for promoting adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Clinics and hospitals should consider implementing such programs.
  • Oxygen therapy for pneumonia in adults
    3 Studien (n= 151)
    Non-invasive ventilation can reduce the risk of death in the ICU, endotracheal intubation, shorten ICU stay and length of intubation. Some outcomes and complications of non-invasive ventilation were varied according to different participant populations. Other than the oxygen therapy, we must mention the importance of standard treatment by physicians. The evidence is weak and we did not include participants with pulmonary tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. More RCTs are required to answer these clinical questions. However, the review indicates that non-invasive ventilation may be more beneficial than standard oxygen supplementation via a Venturi mask for pneumonia.


  • Prophylactic phototherapy for preventing jaundice in preterm or low birth weight infants
    9 Studien (n= 3449)
    Prophylactic phototherapy helps to maintain a lower serum bilirubin concentration and may have an effect on the rate of exchange transfusion and the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment. However, further well-designed studies are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of prophylactic phototherapy on long-term outcomes including neurodevelopmental outcomes.
  • Interventions for covert bacteriuria in children
    3 Studien (n= 460)
    The included studies do not provide sufficient detail about the harms and benefits of treating covert bacteriuria to enable formation of reliable conclusions. It appears that antibiotic treatment for covert bacteriuria is unlikely to benefit children in the long term.
  • Interventions for drooling in children with cerebral palsy
    6 Studien
    It was not possible to reach a conclusion on the effectiveness and safety of either BoNT-A or the pharmaceutical interventions, benztropine and glycopyrrolate. There is insufficient evidence to inform clinical practice on interventions for drooling in children with CP. Directions for future research are provided.
  • Saline irrigation for the management of skin extravasation injury in neonates
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    To date, no randomised controlled trial is available that examines the effects of saline irrigation with or without prior hyaluronidase infiltration in the management of extravasation injury in neonates. Saline irrigation is a frequently reported intervention in the literature that is used in the management of extravasation injury in neonates. Research should be initially directed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of this intervention through randomised controlled trials.
  • Enteral iron supplementation in preterm and low birth weight infants
    26 Studien (n= 2726)
    The available data suggest that infants who receive iron supplementation have a slightly higher haemoglobin level, improved iron stores and a lower risk of developing iron deficiency anaemia when compared with those who are unsupplemented. However, it is unclear whether iron supplementation in preterm and low birth weight infants has long term benefits in terms of neurodevelopmental outcome and growth. The optimum timing and duration of iron supplementation remains unclear.


  • Ultrasound and shockwave therapy for acute fractures in adults
    12 Studien (n=622)
    While a potential benefit of ultrasound for the treatment of acute fractures in adults cannot be ruled out, the currently available evidence from a set of clinically heterogeneous trials is insufficient to support the routine use of this intervention in clinical practice. Future trials should record functional outcomes and follow-up all trial participants.


  • High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation versus chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for follicular lymphoma in adults
    5 Studien (n= 1093)
    In summary, the currently available evidence suggests a strong PFS benefit for HDT + ASCT compared with chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with FL. No statistically significant differences in terms of OS, TRM and secondary cancers were detected. These effects are confirmed in a subgroup analysis (one trial) adding rituximab to both treatment arms. Further trials evaluating this approach are needed to determine this effect more precisely in the era of rituximab. Moreover, longer follow-up data are necessary to find out whether the PFS advantage will translate into an OS advantage in previously untreated patients with FL.
  • Intravesical gemcitabine for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer
    6 Studien (n= 704)
    A single dose immediately following surgery is ineffective based on one study. Gemcitabine may be more active than mitomycin C with a lower toxicity profile. Compared to intravesical BCG therapy, gemcitabine had similar effects in intermediate risk patients, less effective in high risk patient and superior in BCG refractory patients. However, each randomised trial identified represents a different clinical setting in NMIBC and therefore the evidence base is limited. Consequently these data should be interpreted with caution until further corroborative evidence becomes available
  • Alemtuzumab for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
    5 Studien (n= 845)
    In summary, the currently available evidence suggests an OS, CRR and PFS benefit for alemtuzumab compared with no further therapy, but an increased risk for infections in general, CMV infections and CMV reactivations. The role of alemtuzumab versus rituximab still remains unclear
  • Blood transfusions for anaemia in patients with advanced cancer
    Keine RCT, nur vorher-nachher Studien
    Higher-quality studies are required to determine the effectiveness of blood transfusion at the end of life and, in particular, to determine which patients are most likely to respond and which are not, and the duration of any response. Potential harms of blood transfusion at the end of life (indicated by high 14-day mortality) need to be distinguished from inappropriate transfusion in patients who are dying from advanced cancer.
  • Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer operated for cure.
    21 Studien (n= 16215)
    The results of this meta-analysis support the use of 5-FU based postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for patients undergoing apparently radical surgery for non-metastatic rectal carcinoma. Available data do not allow us to define whether the efficacy of this treatment is highest in one specific TNM stage. The implementation of modern anti-cancer agents in the adjuvant setting is warranted to improve the results shown by this meta-analysis.
  • Workload and surgeon´s specialty for outcome after colorectal cancer surgery
    21 Studien (n= 16215)
    The results confirm clearly the presence of a volume-outcome relationship in colorectal cancer surgery, based on hospital and surgeon caseload, and specialisation. The volume-outcome relationship appears somewhat stronger for the individual surgeon than for the hospital; particularly for overall 5-year survival and operative mortality, there were differences between US and non-US data, suggesting provider variability at hospital level between different countries, making it imperative that every country or healthcare system must establish audit systems to guide changes in the service provision based on local data, and facilitate centralisation of services as required.


  • Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia
    Bis zu 3 Studien (unter 100 Teilnehmer, je nach Endpunkt)
    The results seem to favour the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in combination with antipsychotics on a few domains of mental state and cognition, but because of the various limitations in the studies as mentioned in the main text, the evidence is weak. This review highlights the need for large, independent, well designed, conducted and reported pragmatic randomised studies.
  • External counterpulsation for acute ischaemic stroke
    2 Studien (n = 160)
    The methodological quality of the included studies was poor, and reliable conclusions could not be drawn from the present data. High-quality and large-scale RCTs are needed.
    Overall, these results show that IFNs' anti-inflammatory effect is unable to retard progression, when established. In the future, no new RCTs for IFNs versus placebo in SPMS will probably be undertaken, because research is now focusing on innovative drugs. We believe that this review gives conclusive evidence on the clinical efficacy of IFNs versus placebo in SPMS.
  • Interferon beta for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
    5 Studien (n = 3122)
    Recombinant IFN beta does not prevent the development of permanent physical disability in SPMS. We were unable to verify the effect on cognitive function for the lack of comparable data. This treatment significantly reduces the risk of relapse and of short-term relapse-related disability.

  • Interventions for fatigue and weight loss in adults with advanced progressive illness
    27 Übersichten mit 302 Studien (n = 31.833)
    There is a lack of robust evidence for interventions to manage fatigue and/or unintentional weight loss in the advanced stage of progressive illnesses such as advanced cancer, heart failure, lung failure, cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia and AIDS. The evidence contained within this overview provides some insight into interventions which may prove of benefit within this population such as exercise, some pharmacological treatments and support for self management.

  • Cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia
    15 Studien
    There was consistent evidence from multiple trials that cognitive stimulation programmes benefit cognition in people with mild to moderate dementia over and above any medication effects. However, the trials were of variable quality with small sample sizes and only limited details of the randomisation method were apparent in a number of the trials. Other outcomes need more exploration but improvements in self-reported quality of life and well-being were promising. Further research should look into the potential benefits of longer term cognitive stimulation programmes and their clinical significance.
  • Functional analysis-based interventions for challenging behaviour in dementia
    18 Studien
    The delivery of FA has been incorporated within wide ranging multi-component programmes and study designs have varied according to setting - i.e. family care, care homes and hospital, with surprisingly few studies located in care homes. Our findings suggest potential beneficial effects of multi-component interventions, which utilise FA. Whilst functional analysis for challenging behaviour in dementia care shows promise, it is too early to draw conclusions about its efficacy.
  • Intraoperative mild hypothermia for postoperative neurological deficits in intracranial aneurysm patients
    3 Studien (n= 1158)
    In patients with good-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, intraoperative mild hypothermia might prevent death or dependency in activities of daily living for a few of them. However, the confidence intervals include the possibility of both benefit and harm. There is no evidence that intraoperative mild hypothermia is harmful. This treatment should not be routinely applied. In patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage or without subarachnoid haemorrhage, there are insufficient data to draw any conclusions.
  • Lacosamide for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults
    6 Studien (n= 1863)
    Lacosamide has limited efficacy in the treatment of peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Higher doses did not give consistently better efficacy, but were associated with significantly more adverse event withdrawals. Where adverse event withdrawals are high with active treatment compared with placebo and when last observation carried forward imputation is used, as in some of these studies, significant overestimation of treatment efficacy can result. It is likely, therefore, that lacosamide is without any useful benefit in treating neuropathic pain; any positive interpretation of the evidence should be made with caution if at all.
  • Whole-body vibration training for patients with neurodegenerative disease
    10 Studien
    There is insufficient evidence of the effect of WBV training on functional performance of neurodegenerative disease patients. Also, there is insufficient evidence regarding its beneficial effects on signs and symptoms of the disease, body balance, gait, muscle strength and quality of life compared to other active physical therapy or passive interventions in Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis. More studies assessing other functional tests and accurately assessing safety are needed before a definitive recommendation is established.
  • Memory Rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis
    8 Studien (n=521)
    There is no evidence to support the effectiveness of memory rehabilitation on memory function or functional abilities in patients with MS. However, this conclusion has been arrived because of the limited quality of some of the primary studies reviewed in this area. Further robust, RCTs of higher methodological quality and better quality of reporting are needed.
  • Milnacipran for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults
    5 Studien (n=4138)
    The evidence available indicates that milnacipran 100 mg or 200 mg is effective for a minority in the treatment of pain due to fibromyalgia, providing moderate levels of pain relief (at least 30%) to about 40% of participants, compared with about 30% with placebo. There were insufficient data to assess substantial levels of pain relief (at least 50%), and the use of last observation carried forward imputation may overestimate drug efficacy. Milnacipran is associated with increased adverse events and adverse event withdrawals, which were significantly greater for the higher dose. There were no data for the use of milnacipran for other chronic neuropathic pain conditions.
  • Mirror therapy for improving motor function after stroke
    14 Studien (n=567)
    The results indicate evidence for the effectiveness of mirror therapy for improving upper extremity motor function, activities of daily living and pain, at least as an adjunct to normal rehabilitation for patients after stroke. Limitations are due to small sample sizes of most included studies, control interventions that are not used routinely in stroke rehabilitation and some methodological limitations of the studies.


  • Muscle relaxants for pain management in rheumatoid arthritis
    6 Studien (n=126)
    Based upon the currently available evidence in patients with RA, benzodiazepines (diazepam and triazolam) do not appear to be beneficial in improving pain over 24 hours or one week. The non-benzodiazepine agent zopiclone also did not significantly reduce pain over two weeks. However, even short term muscle relaxant use (24 hours to 2 weeks) is associated with significant adverse events, predominantly drowsiness and dizziness.
  • Neuromodulators for pain management in rheumatoid arthritis
    4 Studien (n= 141)
    There is currently weak evidence that oral nefopam, topical capsaicin and oromucosal cannabis are all superior to placebo in reducing pain in patients with RA. However, each agent is associated with a significant side effect profile. The confidence in our estimates is not strong given the difficulties with blinding, the small numbers of participants evaluated and the lack of adverse event data. In some patients, however, even a small degree of pain relief may be considered worthwhile.
  • Sumatriptan (rectal route of administration) for acute migraine attacks in adults
    3 Studien (n= 866)
    Based on limited amounts of data, sumatriptan 25 mg, administered rectally, is an effective treatment for acute migraine attacks, with participants in these studies experiencing a significant reduction in headache pain and functional disability within two hours of treatment. The lack of data on relief of headache-associated symptoms or incidence of adverse events limits any conclusions that can be drawn.


  • Interventions for smoking cessation in Indigenous populations
    4 Studien
    A significant health disparity exists, whereby Indigenous populations, a minority, are over-represented in the burden of smoking-related morbidity and mortality. This review highlights the paucity of evidence available to evaluate the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions, despite the known success of these interventions in non-Indigenous populations. Due to this lack of published investigations, the external validity of this review is limited, as is the ability to draw reliable conclusions from the results. The limited but available evidence reported does indicate that smoking cessation interventions specifically targeted at Indigenous populations can produce smoking abstinence. However this evidence base is not strong with a small number of methodologically sound trials investigating these interventions. More rigorous trials are now required to assist in bridging the gap between tobacco related health disparities in Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations.


Keine geeigneten Studien



  • Bezafibrate for primary biliary cirrhosis
    6 Studien (n= 151)
    This systematic review did not demonstrate any effect of bezafibrate versus no intervention on mortality, liver-related morbidity, adverse events, and pruritus in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.
  • Therapeutic ultrasound for carpal tunnel syndrome
    11 Studien (n= 443)
    There is only poor quality evidence from very limited data to suggest that therapeutic ultrasound may be more effective than placebo for either short- or long-term symptom improvement in people with CTS. More methodologically rigorous studies are needed to determine the effectiveness and safety of this intervention for CTS.
  • High-carbohydrate, high-protein, low-fat versus low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat enteral feeds for burns
    2 Studien (n=93)
    The available evidence suggests that use of high-carbohydrate, high-protein, low-fat enteral feeds in patients with at least 10% TBSA burns might reduce the incidence of pneumonia compared with use of a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet. The available evidence is inconclusive regarding the effect of either enteral feeding regimen on mortality. Note that the available evidence is limited to two small studies judged to be of moderate risk of bias. Further research is needed in this area before strong conclusions can be drawn.
  • Non-drug therapies for lower limb muscle cramps
    1 Studie
    There is limited evidence on which to base clinical decisions regarding the use of non-drug therapies for the treatment of lower limb muscle cramp. Serious methodological limitations in the existing evidence hinder clinical application. There is an urgent need to carefully evaluate many of the commonly recommended and emerging non-drug therapies in well designed randomised controlled trials.
  • Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    7 Studien
    Considering the internal and external validity of the evidence, tranexamic acid cannot be recommended for routine use. Additional trials in which tranexamic acid is used in combination with the currently recommended interventions are required.

  • Deferasirox for managing iron overload in people with thalassaemia
    4 Studien
    Deferasirox offers an important alternative line of treatment for people with thalassaemia and secondary iron overload. Based on the available data, deferasirox does not seem to be superior to deferoxamine at the usually recommended ratio of 1 mg of deferasirox to 2 mg of deferoxamine. However, similar efficacy seems to be achievable depending on the dose and ratio of deferasirox compared to deferoxamine. Whether this will result in similar efficacy in the long run and will translate to similar benefits as has been shown for deferoxamine, needs to be confirmed. Data on safety, particularly on rare toxicities and long-term safety, are still limited.

  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for Bell's palsy
    1 Studie (n= 79)
    Very low quality evidence from one trial suggests that hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be an effective treatment for moderate to severe Bell's palsy, but this study was excluded as the outcome assessor was not blinded to treatment allocation. Further randomised controlled trials are needed.
  • Paying for performance to improve the delivery of health interventions in low- and middle-income countries
    9 Studien
    The current evidence base is too weak to draw general conclusions; more robust and also comprehensive studies are needed. Performance-based funding is not a uniform intervention, but rather a range of approaches. Its effects depend on the interaction of several variables, including the design of the intervention (e.g. who receives payments, the magnitude of the incentives, the targets and how they are measured), the amount of additional funding, other ancillary components such as technical support, and contextual factors, including the organisational context in which it is implemented.



Zuletzt verändert: 27.03.2012