Die 5 Minuten Evidenz - Cochrane Ausgabe 1/2013

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Ausgabe 1/2013 der Cochrane Library


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Aktivität Atmung Augen
Chirurgie Frauen Haut
Herz, Kreislauf, CVD Infektion Kinder
Knochen Krebs Neurologie/
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  • Exercise for improving outcomes after osteoporotic vertebral fracture
    7 Studien (n= 488)
    No definitive conclusions can be made regarding the benefits of exercise for individuals with vertebral fracture. Although individual trials did report benefits for some pain, physical function and quality of life outcomes, the findings should be interpreted with caution given that findings were inconsistent and the quality of evidence was very low. The small number of trials and variability across trials limited our ability to pool outcomes or make conclusions. Evidence regarding the effects of exercise after vertebral fracture, particularly for men, is scarce. A high-quality randomized trial is needed to inform exercise prescription for individuals with vertebral fractures.


  • Nurse versus physician-led care for the management of asthma
    5 Studien (n= 588)
    We found no significant difference between nurse-led care for patients with asthma compared to physician-led care for the outcomes assessed. Based on the relatively small number of studies in this review, nurse-led care may be appropriate in patients with well-controlled asthma. More studies in varied settings and among people with varying levels of asthma control are needed with data on adverse events and health-care costs.
  • Inhaled corticosteroids for subacute and chronic cough in adults
    8 Studien (n= 580)
    The studies were highly heterogeneous and results were inconsistent. Heterogeneity in study design needs to be addressed in future research in order to test the efficacy of this intervention. International cough guidelines recommend that a trial of ICS should only be considered in patients after thorough evaluation including chest X-ray and consideration of spirometry and other appropriate investigations.


  • Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion
    2 Studien (n= 427)
    The available RCT evidence suggests that repeated treatment of non-ischaemic MO secondary to BRVO with the anti-VEGF agent ranibizumab may improve clinical and visual outcomes at six and 12 months. However, the frequency of re-treatment has not yet been determined and the impact of prior or combined treatment with laser photocoagulation on the primary outcome is unclear. Results from ongoing studies should assess not only treatment efficacy but also, the number of injections needed for maintenance and long-term safety and the effect of any prior treatment.


  • Gases for establishing pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic abdominal surgery
    7 Studien (n= 340)
    1. Nitrous oxide pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic abdominal surgery appears to decrease post-operative pain in patients with low anaesthetic risk.
    2. Helium pneumoperitoneum decreases the cardiopulmonary changes associated with laparoscopic abdominal surgery. However, this did not translate into any clinical benefit over carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in patients with low anaesthetic risk.
    3. The safety of nitrous oxide and helium pneumoperitoneum has yet to be established.
  • Surgical interventions for treating distal humeral fractures in adults
    3 Studien (n= 109)
    Overall, this review found there is either no or insufficient evidence from randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials to determine whether surgery is, and which surgical interventions are, the most appropriate for the management of different types of distal humerus fractures. Well designed and reported large and multi-centre randomised controlled trials testing current interventions, such as pre-contoured and locking plating systems, are needed.
  • Surgical versus conservative interventions for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures
    4 Studien (n= 602)
    The bulk of the evidence in this review derives from one large multi-centre but inadequately reported trial conducted over 15 years ago. This found no significant differences between surgical or conservative treatment in functional ability and health related quality of life at three years after displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture. Though it reported a greater risk of major complications after surgery, subtalar arthrodeses for the development of subtalar arthritis was significantly greater after conservative treatment. Overall, there is insufficient high quality evidence relating to current practice to establish whether surgical or conservative treatment is better for adults with displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture.
  • Tranexamic acid for reducing mortality in emergency and urgent surgery
    5 Studien (n= 372)
    There is evidence that tranexamic acid reduces blood transfusion in patients undergoing emergency or urgent surgery. There is a need for a large pragmatic clinical trial to assess the effects of routine use of tranexamic acid on mortality in a heterogeneous group of patients receiving urgent and emergency surgery.
  • Wound drainage after plastic and reconstructive surgery of the breast
    3 Studien (n= 306)
    The limited evidence available shows no significant benefit of using post-operative wound drains in reduction mammoplasty, though hospital stay may be shorter when drains are not used. No data are available for breast augmentation or breast reconstruction, and this requires investigation.



  • Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) for preventing miscarriage
    5 Studien (n= 596)
    The evidence supporting hCG supplementation to prevent RM remains equivocal. A well-designed randomised controlled trial of adequate power and methodological quality is required to determine whether hCG is beneficial in RM.
  • Hysteroscopy for treating subfertility associated with suspected major uterine cavity abnormalities
    2 Studien
    Hysteroscopic myomectomy might increase the odds of clinical pregnancy in women with unexplained subfertility and submucous fibroids, but the evidence is at present not conclusive. The hysteroscopic removal of endometrial polyps suspected on ultrasound in women prior to IUI might increase the clinical pregnancy rate. More randomised studies are needed to substantiate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic removal of suspected endometrial polyps, submucous fibroids, uterine septum or intrauterine adhesions in women with unexplained subfertility or prior to IUI, IVF or ICSI.
  • Intramuscular versus intravenous anti-D for preventing Rhesus alloimmunization during pregnancy
    2 Studien (n= 447)
    It appears that IM and IV administration of anti-D are equally effective. The number of included studies and the number of participants are not enough to assess whether there are any differences.
  • Position in the second stage of labour for women with epidural anaesthesia
    5 Studien (n= 879)
    There are insufficient data to say anything conclusive about the effect of position for the second stage of labour for women with epidural analgesia. Women with an epidural should be encouraged to use whatever position they find comfortable in the second stage of labour.
  • Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery for ovarian carcinosarcoma
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    We found no evidence to inform decisions about neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens, or chemotherapy alone, for women with ovarian carcinosarcoma. Ideally, an RCT that is multicentre or multinational, or well designed non-randomised studies that use multivariate analysis to adjust for baseline imbalances, are needed to compare treatment modalities and improve current knowledge. Further research in genetic and molecular signalling pathways might improve understanding of this tumour subtype.
  • Magnesium sulphate for women at term for neuroprotection of the fetus
    1 Studie (n= 135)
    There is currently insufficient evidence to assess the efficacy and safety of magnesium sulphate when administered to women for neuroprotection of the term fetus. As there has been recent evidence for the use of magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection of the preterm fetus, high-quality randomised controlled trials are needed to determine the safety profile and neurological outcomes for the term fetus. Strategies to reduce maternal side effects during treatment also require evaluation.
  • Minimally invasive versus open surgery for reversal of tubal sterilization
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    Currently there is no evidence from randomised controlled trials to recommend or refute the use of a minimally invasive surgical approach (laparoscopic or robotic) or open surgery for reversal of tubal sterilization. There is a need for well conducted and reported randomised clinical trials to generate reliable evidence to inform clinical practice.
  • Morning versus evening induction of labour for improving outcomes
    3 Studien (n= 1150)
    Taking into account women's preferences that favoured administration of prostaglandins in the morning, we conclude that caregivers should preferably consider administering prostaglandins in the morning.
    There is no strong evidence that induction of labour with intravenous oxytocin in the evening is more or less effective than induction in the morning. Consideration may be given to start induction of labour with oxytocin in the evening when indicated.
  • Progestogens or progestogen-releasing intrauterine systems for uterine fibroids
    3 Studien
    Progestogen-releasing intrauterine systems appear to reduce menstrual blood loss in premenopausal women with uterine fibroids. Oral progestogens did not reduce fibroid size or fibroid- related symptoms. However, there was a methodological limitation and the one included study with data had a small sample size. This evidence is insufficient to support the use of progestogens or progestogen-releasing intrauterine systems in treating premenopausal women with uterine fibroids.
  • Surgical cytoreduction for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer
    9 Studien (n= 1194)
    In women with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer, ability to achieve surgery with complete cytoreduction (no visible residual disease) is associated with significant improvement in overall survival. However, in the absence of RCT evidence, it is not clear whether this is solely due to surgical effect or due to tumour biology. Indirect evidence would support surgery to achieve complete cytoreduction in selected women. The risks of major surgery need to be carefully balanced against potential benefits on a case-by-case basis.
  • Different types of dietary advice for women with gestational diabetes mellitus
    9 Studien (n =429)
    Data for most comparisons were only available from single studies and they are too small for reliable conclusions about which types of dietary advice are the most suitable for women with GDM. Based on the current available evidence, we did not find any significant benefits of the diets investigated.
  • FSH replaced by low-dose hCG in the late follicular phase versus continued FSH for assisted reproductive techniques
    5 Studien (n= 351)
    We are very uncertain of the effect on live birth, OHSS and miscarriage of using low-dose hCG to replace FSH during the late follicular phase of COH in women undergoing ART, compared to the use of conventional COH. The current evidence suggests that this intervention does not reduce the chance of ongoing and clinical pregnancy; and that it is likely to result in an equivalent number of oocytes retrieved expending less FSH. More studies are needed to strengthen the evidence regarding the effect of this intervention on important reproductive outcomes.
  • Human papillomavirus testing versus repeat cytology for triage of minor cytological cervical lesions
    HPV-triage with HC2 can be recommended to triage women with ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance)  because it has higher accuracy (significantly higher sensitivity, and similar specificity) than repeat cytology.
    When triaging women with LSIL, an HC2 test yields a significantly higher sensitivity, but a significantly lower specificity, compared to a repeat cytology. Therefore, practice recommendations for management of women with LSIL should be balanced, taking local circumstances into account.

Herz, Kreislauf, CVD

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for proteinuria and microalbuminuria in people with sickle cell disease
    1 Studie (n= 22)
    There is not enough evidence to show that the administration of ACE inhibitors is associated with a reduction of microalbuminuria and proteinuria in people with sickle cell disease, although a potential for this was seen.
  • Pharmacotherapy for hyperuricemia in hypertensive patients
    1Studie (n= 30) 
    Meta-analysis was not possible in this systematic review. In the one study that matched the inclusion criteria allopurinol decreased "in office" and ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP. Because there was only one included RCT, the number of patients providing data on pharmacotherapy for hyperuricemia in hypertension is small and restricted to adolescents with recently diagnosed mild essential hypertension. Hence, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of allopurinol or other hypouricemic drugs as an initial or adjuvant treatment of hypertension and more RCTs are needed.
  • Antiplatelet agents for chronic kidney disease
    50 Studien (n= 27.139)
    Antiplatelet agents reduce myocardial infarction but increase major bleeding. Risks may outweigh harms among people with low annual risks of cardiovascular events, including those with early stages of CKD who do not have clinically-evident occlusive cardiovascular disease.
  • Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists for acute stroke
    5 Studien (n= 3838)
    This review does not provide the evidence to support the use of GABA receptor agonists (chlormethiazole or diazepam) for the treatment of patients with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Chlormethiazole appeared to be beneficial in improving functional independence in patients with TACS according to the subgroup analysis, but this result must be interpreted with great caution. More well-designed RCTs with large samples of TACS would be required for further confirmation. However, somnolence and rhinitis are frequent adverse events related to chlormethiazole.
  • Computer-based diabetes self-management interventions for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    16 Studien (n= 3578)
    Computer-based diabetes self-management interventions to manage type 2 diabetes appear to have a small beneficial effect on blood glucose control and the effect was larger in the mobile phone subgroup. There is no evidence to show benefits in other biological outcomes or any cognitive, behavioural or emotional outcomes.
  • Effectiveness of the Valsalva Manoeuvre for reversion of supraventricular tachycardia
    3 Studien (n= 316)
    We did not find sufficient evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of the Valsalva Manoeuvre for termination of SVT. Further research is needed and this should include a standardised approach to performance technique and methodology.

  • Stent graft types for endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    Unfortunately, no data exist regarding direct comparisons of the performance of different stent graft types. Therefore, this review cannot recommend guidance to clinicians in their selection of stent graft types. High quality randomised controlled trials evaluating stent graft types in abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair are required.
  • Stent graft types for endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    Unfortunately, no data exist regarding direct comparisons of the performance of different stent graft types. Therefore, this review cannot recommend guidance to clinicians in their selection of stent graft types. High quality RCTs evaluating stent graft types in thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair are required.
  • Subintimal angioplasty for chronic lower limb arterial occlusion
    Keine randomisierten Studien
    Randomized controlled trial evidence for the effectiveness of SIA is lacking. There is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials comparing SIA with any other treatment.


  • Behavioral interventions for improving contraceptive use among women living with HIV
    7 Studien (n= 8882)
    Comparative research on contraceptive counseling for HIV-positive women has been limited. We found little innovation in the behavioral interventions. Our ability to make statements about overall results is hampered by varied study designs, interventions, and outcome assessments. The quality of evidence was moderate. Since some of these studies were conducted, improvements in HIV treatment have influenced the fertility intentions of HIV-positive people.
    The family planning field needs better ways to help women choose an appropriate contraceptive and continue using that chosen method. Women with HIV may have special concerns regarding family planning. Research could focus on assessing the woman's needs and training providers to address those issues rather than delivering standardized information.
  • High-volume haemofiltration for sepsis
    3 Studien (n= 64)
    There were no adverse effects of HVHF reported.There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of HVHF in critically ill patients with severe sepsis and or septic shock except as interventions being investigated in the setting of a randomized clinical trial. These trials should be large, multi-centred and have clinically relevant outcome measures. Financial implications should also be assessed.
  • Telephone communication of HIV testing results for improving knowledge of HIV infection status
    1 Studie (n= 351)
    We found only one eligible study. Although this study showed the use of the telephone for HIV test results notification was more effective than face-to-face delivery, it had a high-risk of bias. The study was conducted about 13 years ago in a high-income country, on a high-risk population, with low HIV prevalence, and the applicability of its results to other settings and contexts is unclear. The study did not provide information about telephone HIV test results notification of HIV positive people since none of the intervention group participants were HIV positive. We found no information about the acceptability of the intervention to patients’ and providers’, its economic outcomes or potential adverse effects. There is a need for robust evidence from various settings on the effectiveness of telephone use for HIV test results notification.
  • Xpert ® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults
    18 Studien (n> 7000)
    This review shows that Xpert used as an initial diagnostic test for TB detection and rifampicin resistance detection in patients suspected of having TB, MDR-TB, or HIV-associated TB is sensitive and specific. Xpert may also be valuable as an add-on test following microscopy for patients who have previously been found to be smear-negative. An Xpert result that is positive for rifampicin resistance should be carefully interpreted and take into consideration the risk of MDR-TB in a given patient and the expected prevalence of MDR-TB in a given setting.
  • Interventions for the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in people with cystic fibrosis
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    We did not identify any randomised trials which would allow us to make any evidence-based recommendations. Although the results of several non-randomised studies would suggest that, once isolated, the eradication of MRSA is possible; whether this has a significant impact on clinical outcome is still unclear. Further research is required to guide clinical decision making in the management of MRSA infection in cystic fibrosis.
  • Optimal timing for antiretroviral therapy initiation in patients with HIV infection and concurrent cryptococcal meningitis
    2 Studien (n= 89)
    This systematic review shows that there is insufficient evidence in support of either early or late initiation of ART. For the moment, because of the high risk of immune reconstitution syndrome in patients with cryptococcal meningitis, we recommend that ART initiation should be delayed until there is evidence of a sustained clinical response to antifungal therapy. However, large studies with appropriate comparison groups, and adequate follow-up are warranted to provide the evidence base for effective decision making.
  • Continuous versus intermittent infusions of antibiotics for the treatment of severe acute infections
    29 Studien (n= 1600)
    There were no differences in mortality, infection recurrence, clinical cure, superinfection post–therapy, and safety outcomes when comparing continuous infusions of intravenous antibiotics to traditional intermittent infusions of antibiotics.  However, the wide confidence intervals suggest that beneficial or harmful effects cannot be ruled out for all outcomes. Therefore, the current evidence is insufficient to recommend the widespread adoption of continuous infusion antibiotics in the place of intermittent infusions of antibiotics.
  • Interventions to improve professional adherence to guidelines for prevention of device-related infections
    13 Studien
    The low to very low quality of the evidence of studies included in this review provides insufficient evidence to determine with certainty which interventions are most effective in changing professional behaviour and in what contexts. However, interventions that may be worth further study are educational interventions involving more than one active element and that are repeatedly administered over time, and interventions employing specialised personnel, who are focused on an aspect of care that is supported by evidence e.g. dentists/dental auxiliaries performing oral care for VAP prevention.
  • Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis
    4 Studien (n= 1091)
    The only osmotic diuretic to have undergone randomised evaluation is glycerol. Data from trials to date have not demonstrated benefit on death, but it may reduce deafness. Osmotic diuretics, including glycerol, should not be given to adults and children with bacterial meningitis unless as part of carefully conducted randomised controlled trial.


  • Acupuncture for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in neonates
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    The rationale for acupuncture in neonates with HIE is unclear and the evidence from randomized controlled trial is lacking. Therefore, we do not recommend acupuncture for the treatment of HIE in neonates. High quality randomized controlled trials on acupuncture for HIE in neonates are needed.
  • Treating BCG induced disease in children
    5 Studien (n= 341)
    It is unclear if oral antibiotics (isoniazid, erythromycin, or a combination of isoniazid plus rifampicin) are effective for the resolution of BCG-induced disease. Most non-suppurated lymphadenitis will resolve without treatment in 4 to 6 months. Patients with lymphadenitis abscess might benefit from needle aspiration and possibly local instillation of isoniazid could shorten recovery time. Included studies were generally small and could be better conducted.
  • Ciclesonide versus other inhaled corticosteroids for chronic asthma in children
    6 Studien (n= 3256)
    An improvement in asthma symptoms, exacerbations and side effects of ciclesonide versus budesonide and fluticasone could be neither demonstrated nor refuted and the trade-off between benefits and harms of using ciclesonide instead of budesonide or fluticasone is unclear. The resource use or costs of different ICS should therefore also be considered in final decision making.
  • Hydralazine in infants with persistent hypoxemic respiratory failure
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There was insufficient evidence to determine the safety and efficacy of hydralazine in LBW infants with persistent hypoxemic respiratory failure. Since hydralazine is inexpensive and potentially beneficial, randomised controlled trials are recommended. Such trials are particularly needed in settings where other medications such as sildenafil, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are not available.
  • Hypothermia for neuroprotection in children after cardiopulmonary arrest
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    Based on this review, we are unable to make any recommendations for clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials are needed and the results of on-going trials will be assessed when available.
  • Inhaled corticosteroids for subacute cough in children
    2 Studien (n= 98)
    There is currently no evidence to support the use of ICS for treatment of subacute cough in children. However, this systematic review is limited by the small number of studies available for analysis and the size, quality and design of these studies. Further well-designed RCTs are required to support or refute the efficacy of treatment with ICS in children with subacute cough.
  • Vasopressin and its analogues for the treatment of refractory hypotension in neonates
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There is insufficient evidence to recommend or refute the use of vasopressin or its analogues in the treatment of refractory hypotension in neonates. Well-designed, adequately powered, randomized controlled studies are necessary to address efficacy, optimal dosing, safety and long-term neurodevelopmental and pulmonary outcomes.


  • Multidisciplinary rehabilitation after primary brain tumour treatment
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    No RCTs or CCTs were available for synthesis of 'best evidence' for multidisciplinary rehabilitation after treatment for brain tumour patients. However, this does not suggest the ineffectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation but rather highlights the challenges in trial design and rigour, outcome measurement and complexities of care in this population.
    1 Studie
  • Red flags to screen for malignancy in patients with low-back pain
    8 Studien (n =6622)
    For most "red flags," there is insufficient evidence to provide recommendations regarding their diagnostic accuracy or usefulness for detecting spinal malignancy. The available evidence indicates that in patients with LBP, an indication of spinal malignancy should not be based on the results of one single "red flag" question. Further research to evaluate the performance of different combinations of tests is recommended.
  • The role of maintenance therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia in the first complete remission
    10 Studien (n= 2072)
    Maintenance therapy compared to observation in APL patients improved DFS but not OS. Similarly, ATRA and chemotherapy compared to ATRA improved DFS but not OS. In contrast, ATRA based regimens compared to non-ATRA based regimens did not demonstrate a survival benefit. The significance of these findings is limited due to clinical heterogeneity between studies.


  • Cerebrolysin for vascular dementia
    6 Studien  (n = 597)
    Cerebrolysin may have positive effects on cognitive function and global function in elderly patients with vascular dementia of mild to moderate severity, but there is still insufficient evidence to recommend Cerebrolysin as a routine treatment for vascular dementia due to the limited number of included trials, wide variety of treatment durations and short-term follow-up in most of the trials.
  • Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for fibromyalgia syndrome
    10 Studien (n = 6038)
    The SNRIs duloxetine and milnacipran provided a small incremental benefit over placebo in reducing pain. The superiority of duloxetine and milnacipran over placebo in reducing fatigue and limitations of QOL was not substantial. Duloxetine and milnacipran were not superior to placebo in reducing sleep problems. The dropout rates due to adverse events were higher for duloxetine and milnacipran than for placebo. The most frequently reported symptoms leading to stopping medication were nausea, dry mouth, constipation, headache, somnolence/dizziness and insomnia. Rare complications of both drugs may include suicidality, liver damage, abnormal bleeding, elevated blood pressure and urinary hesitation.

  • Antiepileptic drugs as prophylaxis for post-craniotomy seizures
    6 Studien (n = 1398)
    There is little evidence to suggest that AED treatment administered prophylactically is effective or not effective in preventing post-craniotomy seizures. The current evidence base is limited due to the differing methodologies employed in the trials and inconsistencies in reporting of outcomes. Further evidence from good-quality, contemporary trials is required in order to assess the effectiveness of prophylactic AED treatment compared to control groups or other AEDs in preventing post-craniotomy seizures properly.
  • Drug therapy for preventing post-dural puncture headache
    10 Studien (n= 1611)
    Morphine and cosyntropin have shown effectiveness for reducing the number of participants affected by PDPH of any severity after a lumbar puncture, when compared to placebo, especially in patients with high risk of PDPH, such as obstetric patients who have had an inadvertent dural puncture. Aminophylline also reduced the number of participants affected by PDPH of any severity after a lumbar puncture when compared to no intervention in patients undergoing elective caesarean section. Dexamethasone increased the risk of PDPH, after spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section, when compared to placebo. Morphine also increased the number of participants affected by adverse events (pruritus and nausea and vomiting)
    There is a lack of conclusive evidence for the other drugs assessed (fentanyl, caffeine, indomethacin and dexamethasone). These conclusions should be interpreted with caution, owing to the lack of information, to allow correct appraisal of risk of bias and the small sample sizes of studies.
  • Non pharmacological interventions for spasticity in multiple sclerosis
    9 Studien (n= 301)
    There is 'low level' evidence for non pharmacological interventions such as physical activities given in conjunction with other interventions, and for magnetic stimulation and electromagnetic therapies for beneficial effects on spasticity outcomes in people with MS. A wide range of non pharmacological interventions are used for the treatment of spasticity in MS, but more robust trials are needed to build evidence about these interventions.
  • Training to recognise the early signs of recurrence in schizophrenia
    36 Studien (n= 3554)
    This review indicates that early warning signs interventions may have a positive effect on the proportions of people re-hospitalised and on rates of relapse, but not on time to recurrence. However, the overall quality of the evidence was very low, indicating that we do not know if early warning signs interventions will have similar effects outside trials and that it is very likely that further research will alter these estimates.
  • Consumer-providers of care for adult clients of statutory mental health services
    11 Studien mit mäßiger Qualität (n =2796)
    Involving consumer-providers in mental health teams results in psychosocial, mental health symptom and service use outcomes for clients that were no better or worse than those achieved by professionals employed in similar roles, particularly for case management services.
    There is low quality evidence that involving consumer-providers in mental health teams results in a small reduction in clients' use of crisis or emergency services.
  • Nidotherapy for people with schizophrenia
    1 Studie (n= 52)
    Further research is needed into the possible benefits or harms of this newly-formulated therapy. Until such research is available, patients, clinicians, managers and policymakers should consider it an experimental approach.
  • Sulthiame add-on therapy for epilepsy
    1 Studie (n= 37)
    Sulthiame may lead to a cessation of seizures when used as an add-on therapy to pyridoxine in patients with West syndrome. The included study was small and had a significant risk of bias which limits the impact of the evidence. No conclusions can be drawn on the occurrence of adverse drug effects, change in quality of life or mean reduction in seizure frequency. No evidence exists for the use of sulthiame as an add-on therapy in patients with epilepsy outside West syndrome.
  • Withdrawal versus continuation of chronic antipsychotic drugs for behavioural and psychological symptoms in older people with dementia
    9 Studien (n= 606)
    Our findings suggest that many older people with Alzheimer's dementia and NPS (neuropsychiatric symptoms) can be withdrawn from chronic antipsychotic medication without detrimental effects on their behaviour. It remains uncertain whether withdrawal is beneficial for cognition or psychomotor status, but the results of this review suggest that discontinuation programmes could be incorporated into routine practice.


  • Red flags to screen for vertebral fracture in patients presenting with low-back pain
    8 Studien
    The available evidence does not support the use of many red flags to specifically screen for vertebral fracture in patients presenting for LBP. Based on evidence from single studies, few individual red flags appear informative as most have poor diagnostic accuracy as indicated by imprecise estimates of likelihood ratios. When combinations of red flags were used the performance appeared to improve. From the limited evidence, the findings give rise to a weak recommendation that a combination of a small subset of red flags may be useful to screen for vertebral fracture. It should also be noted that many red flags have high false positive rates; and if acted upon uncritically there would be consequences for the cost of management and outcomes of patients with LBP. Further research should focus on appropriate sets of red flags and adequate reporting of both index and reference tests.
  • Spinal cord stimulation for cancer-related pain in adults
    4 Studien (n= 92)
    Current evidence is insufficient to establish the role of SCS in treating refractory cancer-related pain. Future randomised studies should focus on the implantation of SCS in patients with cancer-related pain.
  • Oxcarbazepine for neuropathic pain
    4 Studien (n= 779)
    On the basis of moderate quality evidence from one trial in diabetic peripheral neuropathy, oxcarbazepine is effective in reducing pain for this condition. However, this conclusion does not take into account negative results from other trials in diabetic peripheral neuropathy that could not be included in our meta-analysis. We did not find any evidence from randomised controlled trials to determine the efficacy or safety of oxcarbazepine for other kinds of neuropathic pain. Most adverse effects related to oxcarbazepine are rated as mild to moderate in severity, but adverse events leading to discontinuation of drug administration or serious adverse events are not uncommon. More well designed randomised controlled trials investigating oxcarbazepine for various types of neuropathic pain are needed.
  • Single dose oral ibuprofen plus codeine for acute postoperative pain in adults
    6 Studien (n= 1342)
    The combination of ibuprofen 400 mg plus codeine 25.6 to 60 mg demonstrates good analgesic efficacy. Very limited data suggest that the combination is better than the same dose of either drug alone. Use of combination analgesics that contain codeine has been a source of some concern because of misuse from over-the-counter preparations.



  • Thyroid hormones for acute kidney injury
    2 Studien (n= 97)
    We found a paucity of large, high quality studies to inform analysis of thyroid hormone interventions for the treatment of people with AKI. Current evidence suggested that thyroid hormone therapy may be associated with worse outcomes for patients with established AKI; therefore, its use for these patients should be avoided. The role of thyroid hormone therapy in preventing AKI has not been adequately investigated and may be considered in future clinical studies.



  • Interventions for nail psoriasis
    18 Studien (n= 1266)
    Infliximab, golimumab, SRT, grenz rays, and electron beam caused significant nail improvement compared to the comparative treatment. Although the quality of trials was generally poor, this review may have some implications for clinical practice.Although powerful systemic treatments have been shown to be beneficial, they may have serious adverse effects. So they are not a realistic option for people troubled with nail psoriasis, unless the patient is prescribed these systemic treatments because of cutaneous psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis or the nail psoriasis is severe, refractory to other treatments, or has a major impact on the person's quality of life.

  • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease
    11 Studien (n= 218)
    NMES appears an effective means of improving muscle weakness in adults with progressive diseases such as COPD, chronic heart failure and cancer. Further research is required to clarify its place in clinical practice, by determining the optimal parameters for a NMES programme, the patients most likely to benefit, and its impact on morbidity and service use.
  • Topical treatment for facial burns
    5 Studien (n= 119)
    There is insufficient high quality research and evidence to enable conclusions to be drawn about the effects of topical interventions on wound healing in people with facial burns.
  • The effect of pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services on patient outcomes, health service utilisation and costs in low- and middle-income countries
    12 Studien
    Pharmacist-provided services that target patients may improve clinical outcomes such as management of high glucose levels among diabetic patients, management of blood pressure and cholesterol levels and may improve the quality of life of patients with chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and asthma. Pharmacist services may reduce health service utilisation such as visits to general practitioners and hospitalisation rates. We are uncertain about the effect of educational sessions by pharmacists for healthcare professionals due to the imprecision of a single study included in this review. Similarly, conclusions could not be drawn for health service utilisation and costs due to lack of evidence on interventions delivered by pharmacists to healthcare professionals. These results were heterogenous in the types of outcomes measured, clinical conditions and approaches to measurement of outcomes, and require cautious interpretation. All eligible studies were from middle income countries and the results may not be applicable to low income countries.
  • Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anemia in rheumatoid arthritis
    3 Studien (n= 133)
    We found conflicting evidence for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to increase quality of life and hemoglobin level by treating anemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. However, this conclusion is based on randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias, and relies on trials assessing human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO). The safety profile of EPO is unclear.
  • Housing improvements for health and associated socio-economic outcomes
    39 Studien
    Housing investment which improves thermal comfort in the home can lead to health improvements, especially where the improvements are targeted at those with inadequate warmth and those with chronic respiratory disease. The health impacts of programmes which deliver improvements across areas and do not target according to levels of individual need were less clear, but reported impacts at an area level may conceal health improvements for those with the greatest potential to benefit. Best available evidence indicates that housing which is an appropriate size for the householders and is affordable to heat is linked to improved health and may promote improved social relationships within and beyond the household. In addition, there is some suggestion that provision of adequate, affordable warmth may reduce absences from school or work.
  • Interventions to enhance adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults
    38 Studien (n= 9445)
    There is a need for further, long-term, good-quality studies using more standardized and validated measures of adherence to identify the interventions that should be used in practice to enhance adherence to dietary advice in the context of a variety of chronic diseases.
  • Interventions to optimise prescribing for older people in care homes
    8 Studien (n= 7653)
    Robust conclusions could not be drawn from the evidence due to variability in design, interventions, outcomes and results. The interventions implemented in the studies in this review led to the identification and resolution of medication-related problems, however evidence of an effect on resident-related outcomes was not found. There is a need for high-quality cluster-randomised controlled trials testing clinical decision support systems and multidisciplinary interventions that measure well-defined, important resident-related outcomes.
  • Medication review in hospitalised patients to reduce morbidity and mortality
    5 Studien (n= 1186)
    It is uncertain whether medication review reduces mortality or hospital readmissions, but medication review seems to reduce emergency department contacts. However, the cost-effectiveness of this intervention is not known and due to the uncertainty of the estimates of mortality and readmissions and the short follow-up, important treatment effects may have been overlooked. Therefore, medication review should preferably be undertaken in the context of clinical trials. High quality trials with long follow-up are needed before medication review should be implemented.
  • Restorative justice conferencing for reducing recidivism in young offenders (aged 7 to 21)
    4 Studien (n= 1447)
    There is currently a lack of high quality evidence regarding the effectiveness of restorative justice conferencing for young offenders. Caution is urged in interpreting the results of this review considering the small number of included studies, subsequent low power and high risk of bias. The effects may potentially be more evident for victims than offenders. The need for further research in this area is highlighted.
  • Helicopter emergency medical services for adults with major trauma
    21 Studien (n über 150.000, keine RCTs)
    Due to the methodological weakness of the available literature, and the considerable heterogeneity of effects and study methodologies, an accurate composite estimate of the benefit of HEMS could not be determined. Although five of the nine multivariate regression studies indicated improved survival associated with HEMS, the remainder did not. All were subject to a low quality of evidence as assessed by the GRADE Working Group criteria due to their non-randomised design.
  • Pathogen-reduced platelets for the prevention of bleeding
    10 Studien (n= 1422)
    We found no evidence of a difference in mortality, 'clinically significant' or 'severe bleeding', transfusion reactions or adverse events between pathogen-reduced and standard platelets. For a range of laboratory outcomes the results indicated evidence of some benefits for standard platelets over pathogen-reduced platelets. These conclusions are based on data from 1422 patients included in 10 trials.
  • Thromboprophylaxis for trauma patients
    16 Studien (n= 3005)
    We did not find evidence that thromboprophylaxis reduces mortality or PE in any of the comparisons assessed. However, we found some evidence that thromboprophylaxis prevents DVT. Although the strength of the evidence was not high, taking into account existing information from other related conditions such as surgery, we recommend the use of any DVT prophylactic method for people with severe trauma.


Zuletzt verändert: 25.04.2013