Die 5 Minuten Evidenz - Cochrane Ausgabe 2/2012

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Ausgabe 2/2012 der Cochrane Library


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Aktivität Atmung Augen
Chirurgie Frauen Haut
Herz, Kreislauf, CVD Infektion Kinder
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  • Exercise and mobilisation interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome
    16 Studien (n= 741)
    There is limited and very low quality evidence of benefit for all of a diverse collection of exercise and mobilisation interventions for CTS. People with CTS who indicate a preference for exercise or mobilisation interventions should be informed of the limited evidence of effectiveness and safety of this intervention by their treatment provider. Until more high quality randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness and safety of various exercise and mobilisation interventions compared to other non-surgical interventions are undertaken, the decision to provide this type of non-surgical intervention to people with CTS should be based on the clinician's expertise in being able to deliver these treatments and patient's preferences.


  • Helminth therapy (worms) for allergic rhinitis
    2 Studien (n= 130)
    There is currently insufficient evidence on the efficacy, tolerability and likely costs of helminth therapy to support its use in the routine management of allergic rhinitis. Administered to humans in carefully measured doses, helminths appear to be safe.
  • Long-acting beta2-agonist in addition to tiotropium versus either tiotropium or long-acting beta2-agonist alone for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    5 Studien
    The results from this review indicate a small mean improvement in health-related quality of life for patients on a combination of tiotropium and long-acting beta2-agonist compared to tiotropium alone, but it is not clear how clinically important this mean difference may be. Hospital admission and mortality have not been shown to be altered by adding long-acting beta2-agonists to tiotropium. There were not enough data to determine the relative efficacy and safety of tiotropium plus long-acting beta2-agonist compared to long-acting beta2-agonist alone. There were insufficient data to make comparisons between the different long-acting beta2-agonists when used in addition to tiotropium.
  • Antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    This review did not identify any evidence regarding the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. Until such evidence becomes available, clinicians need to use their clinical judgement as to whether or not to treat Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.
  • Leukotriene receptor antagonists in addition to usual care for acute asthma in adults and children
    10 Studien (n=1940)
    Presently, the available evidence does not support routine use of oral LTRAs in acute asthma. Further studies are required to assess whether intravenous treatment can reduce the risk of hospital admission, and what the most appropriate dose regimen is. Additional research is also needed into safety and efficacy of additional doses for those on maintenance therapy, and larger paediatric trials are required to allow subgroup analysis. Prolonged studies would be required to establish other health economic outcomes in admitted patients.

  • Monosodium glutamate avoidance for chronic asthma in adults and children
    2 Studien (n=24)
    The limited evidence available (n = 24) found no significant difference between MSG or the control challenge for the number of subjects who had a maximum fall in FEV1 greater than 15% or 200 mL. There is no evidence to support the avoidance of MSG in adults with chronic asthma, but as data were limited, this review cannot provide a reliable evidence base for determining whether MSG avoidance is a worthwhile strategy. We could not find any studies conducted on the effect of MSG in children with chronic asthma. There is therefore, a need for further RCTs to investigate any relationship between MSG and asthma, especially in children.



  • Aromatherapy for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting
    9 Studien (n= 402)
    Isopropyl alcohol was more effective than saline placebo for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting but less effective than standard anti-emetic drugs. There is currently no reliable evidence for the use of peppermint oil.
  • Interventions for treating acute elbow dislocations in adults
    2 Studien (n= 80)
    There is insufficient evidence from randomised controlled trials to determine which method of treatment is the most appropriate for simple dislocations of the elbow in adults. Although weak and inconclusive, the available evidence from a trial comparing surgery versus conservative treatment does not suggest that the surgical repair of elbow ligaments for simple elbow dislocation improves long-term function.
  • Scalpel versus electrosurgery for abdominal incisions
    9 Studien (n= 1901)
    Current evidence suggests that making an abdominal incision with electrosurgery may be as safe as using a scalpel. However, these conclusions are based on relatively few events and more research is needed. The relative effects of scalpels and electrosurgery are unclear for the outcomes of blood loss, pain, and incision time.


  • Anaesthesia for evacuation of incomplete miscarriage
    7 Studien (n= 800)
    Particular considerations that influence the choice of anaesthesia for this procedure such as availability, effectiveness, safety, side effects, practitioner's choice, costs and woman's preferences of each technique should continue to be used until more evidence supporting the use of one technique or another.

  • Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing preterm birth in singleton pregnancy
    12 Studien (n= 3228)
    Compared with no treatment, cervical cerclage reduces the incidence of preterm birth in women at risk of recurrent preterm birth without statistically significant reduction in perinatal mortality or neonatal morbidity and uncertain long-term impact on the baby. Ceasarean section is more likely in women who had cervical suture inserted during pregnancy. The decision on how best to minimise the risk of recurrent preterm birth in women at risk, either because of poor history of a short or dilated cervix, should be 'personalised', based on the clinical circumstances, the skill and expertise of the clinical team and, most importantly, woman's informed choice.
  • Interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy
    28 Studien (n= 3976)
    There is not enough evidence to recommend any intervention for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy, due to the significant methodological limitations of included studies and the small observed effect sizes. More high-quality randomised controlled trials with adequate sample sizes are required to evaluate the effectiveness of potential interventions.
  • Local anaesthetic nerve block for pain management in labour
    12 Studien (n= 1549)
    Local anaesthetic nerve blocks are more effective than placebo, opioid and non-opioid analgesia for pain management in labour based on RCTs of unclear quality and limited numbers. Side effects are more common after local anaesthetic nerve blocks in comparison with placebo. Different local anaesthetic agents used for pain relief provide similar satisfaction with pain relief. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm the findings, to assess other outcomes and to compare local anaesthetic nerve blocks with various modalities for pain relief in labour.
  • Management of reported decreased fetal movements for improving pregnancy outcomes
    1 Studie (n =28)
    There are insufficient data from randomised trials to guide practice regarding the management of DFM. Based on the results of other systematic reviews of management strategies for women whose babies are thought to be at risk of compromise for various reasons, the following strategies show promise and may be prioritised for further research: Doppler ultrasound studies, computerised cardiotocography, and fetal arousal to facilitate cardiotocography. For settings where electronic fetal assessment methods are not available, clinical fetal arousal tests should be investigated.
  • Trastuzumab containing regimens for early breast cancer
    8 Studien (n= 11.991)
    Trastuzumab significantly improves OS and DFS in HER2-positive women with early and locally advanced breast cancer, although it also significantly increases the risk of CHF and LVEF decline. The available subgroup analyses are limited by the small number of studies. Studies that administered trastuzumab concurrently or sequentially did not differ significantly in efficacy. Shorter duration of therapy may reduce cardiotoxicity and maintain efficacy, however there is insufficient evidence at present to conclude this due to small numbers of patients in these trials.
  • Beta2-adrenoceptor agonists for dysmenorrhoea
    5 Studien (n=187)
    The evidence presented in this review was based on a few relatively small-sized studies that were categorised to have unclear to high risk of bias, which does not allow confident decision-making at present about the use of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists for dysmenorrhoea. The benefits as reported in one study should be balanced against the wide array of unacceptable side effects documented with this class of medication. We have emphasised the lack of precision and limitations in the reported data where appropriate.
  • Chinese herbal medicines for threatened miscarriage
    44 Studien (n=5100)
    There was insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicines alone for treating threatened miscarriage.
    A combination of Chinese herbal and Western medicines was more effective than Western medicines alone for treating threatened miscarriage. However, the quality of the included studies was poor. More high quality studies are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicines for threatened miscarriage.
  • Home uterine monitoring for detecting preterm labour
    15 Studien (n= 6008)
    Home uterine monitoring may result in fewer admissions to a neonatal intensive care unit but more unscheduled antenatal visits and tocolytic treatment. There is no impact on maternal and perinatal outcomes such as perinatal mortality or incidence of preterm birth.
  • Interventions for female pattern hair loss
    22 Studien (n= 2349)
    Although more than half of the included studies were assessed as being at high risk of bias, and the rest at unclear, there was evidence to support the effectiveness and safety of topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Further direct comparison studies of minoxidil 5% applied once a day, which could improve adherence when compared to minoxidil 2% twice daily, are still required. Consideration should also be given to conducting additional well-designed, adequately-powered randomised controlled trials investigating several of the other treatment options.

  • Hypnosis during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period for preventing postnatal depression
    1 Studie (n= 63)
    There was no evidence available from randomised controlled trials to assess the effectiveness of hypnosis during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postnatal period for preventing postnatal depression. Evidence from randomised controlled trials is needed to evaluate the use and effects of hypnosis during the perinatal period to prevent postnatal depression. Two trials are currently underway which may provide further information in the future.
  • Long-acting FSH versus daily FSH for women undergoing assisted reproduction
    4 Studien (n= 2335)
    The use of a medium dose of long-acting FSH is a safe treatment option and equally effective compared to daily FSH. Further research is needed to determine if long-acting FSH is safe and effective for use in hyper- or poor responders and in women with all causes of subfertility.
  • Pulmonary artery flow catheters for directing management in pre-eclampsia
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There is currently no evidence from randomised controlled trials supporting the use of the pulmonary artery catheters. Fluid management in pre-eclampsia, especially in the context of preventing or managing renal failure and pulmonary oedema, remains an important issue. Randomised trials dealing with this intervention are needed, however, we do recognise the difficulty in performing randomised trials due to the invasive nature of the procedure and skills involved in inserting a pulmonary flow catheter.
  • Second trimester serum tests for Down's Syndrome screening
    59 Studien (n= 341261)
    Tests involving two or more markers in combination with maternal age are significantly more sensitive than those involving one marker. The value of combining four or more tests or including inhibin have not been proven to show statistically significant improvement. Further study is required to investigate reduced test performance in women aged over 35 and the impact of differential pregnancy loss on study findings.

Herz, Kreislauf, CVD

  • Angiotensin receptor blockers for heart failure
    22 Studien (n= 17.900)
    In patients with symptomatic HF and systolic dysfunction or with preserved ejection fraction, ARBs compared to placebo or ACEIs do not reduce total mortality or morbidity. ARBs are better tolerated than ACEIs but do not appear to be as safe and well tolerated as placebo in terms of withdrawals due to adverse effects. Adding an ARB in combination with an ACEI does not reduce total mortality or total hospital admission but increases withdrawals due to adverse effects compared with ACEI alone.
  • Catheter ablation for paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation
    32 Studien (n= 3260)
    There is limited evidence to suggest that CA may be a better treatment option compared to medical therapies in the management of persistent AF. This review was also unable to recommend the best CA method.
  • Fermented milk for hypertension
    15 Studien (n= 1232) 
    The review does not support an effect of fermented milk on blood pressure. Despite the positive effect on SBP the authors conclude, for several reasons, that fermented milk has no effect on blood pressure. The effect found was very modest and only on SBP, the included studies were very heterogeneous and several with weak methodology.
  • Preoperative statin therapy for patients undergoing cardiac surgery
    11 Studien (n= 984)
    Preoperative statin therapy reduces the odds of post-operative AF and shortens the stay on the ICU and in the hospital. Statin pretreatment had no influence on perioperative mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction or renal failure. Since analysed studies included mainly patients undergoing myocardial revascularizations the results cannot be extrapolated to patients undergoing other cardiac procedures such as heart valve or aortic surgery.
  • Stent placement versus surgery for coarctation of the thoracic aorta
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There is insufficient evidence with regards to the best treatment for coarctation of the thoracic aorta. This review suggests a need to perform a randomized controlled clinical trial with emphasis on the allocation method, evaluation of primary outcomes, size and quality of the sample, and long-term follow-up.
  • Inspiratory muscle training for the recovery of function after stroke
    2 Studien (n= 66)
    There is insufficient evidence to support inspiratory muscle training as an effective treatment to improve function after stroke, and no evidence relating to the safety of inspiratory muscle training. Further well-designed RCTs are required.
  • Knee length versus thigh length graduated compression stockings for prevention of deep vein thrombosis in postoperative surgical patients
    3 Studien (n= 496)
    This review found that there is insufficient high quality evidence to determine whether or not KL and TL GCS differ in their effectiveness in terms of reducing the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalised patients.  A major multicentre RCT is required to address this issue. In the meantime, the decision on which type of stocking to use in clinical practice is likely to be influenced by factors such as patient compliance, ease of use and cost implications.
  • Pacing for drug-refractory or drug-intolerant hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    2 Studien (n= 105)
    Trials published to date lack information on clinically relevant end-points. Existing data is derived from small trials at high risk of bias, which concentrate on physiological measures. Their results are inconclusive. Further large and high quality trials with more appropriate outcomes are warranted.
  • Sonothrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke
    5 Studien (n= 233)
    Sonothrombolysis did not reduce death or dependency at three months, but appeared to increase recanalisation without clear hazard. A larger clinical trial is warranted.
  • Tianma Gouteng Yin Formula for treating primary hypertension
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    As no trials could be identified, no conclusions can be made about the role of TGYF in the treatment of primary hypertension. Well-designed randomized controlled studies need to be conducted and published.


  • Early routine endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography strategy versus early conservative management strategy in acute gallstone pancreatitis
    5 Studien (n= 644)
    In patients with acute gallstone pancreatitis, there is no evidence that early routine ERCP significantly affects mortality, and local or systemic complications of pancreatitis, regardless of predicted severity. Our results, however, provide support for current recommendations that early ERCP should be considered in patients with co-existing cholangitis or biliary obstruction.
  • Azithromycin versus penicillin G benzathine for early syphilis
    3 Studien
    Differences in the odds of cure did not reach statistical significance when azithromycin was compared with benzathine penicillin for the treatment of early syphilis. No definitive conclusion can be made regarding the relative safety of benzathine penicillin G and azithromycin for early syphilis. Further studies on the utility of benzathine penicillin G for early syphilis are warranted.
  • Topical microbicides for prevention of sexually transmitted infections
    9 Studien (n= 31941)
    Limited evidence suggests that vaginal tenofovir microbicides may reduce the risk of acquisition of HIV and HSV-2 infections in women; but other types of topical microbicides have not shown evidence of an effect on HIV or STI acquisition. Therefore, there is not enough evidence to recommend topical microbicides for HIV or STI prevention at present. Further studies are needed to confirm the beneficial effects of tenofovir microbicide gel in vaginal sex. In addition, further research should continue on the development and testing of new microbicides. If the effectiveness of the tenofovir and/or other microbicides is confirmed in further studies, there will need to be a clear pathway to rapid regulatory approval. Successful launch of the effective gel would depend on having in place appropriate mechanisms for distribution to the women who need it, along with a strategy for ensuring that they use it correctly.


  • Anticholinergic therapy for acute asthma in children
    6 Studien
    In children over the age of two years with acute asthma exacerbations, inhaled anticholinergics as single agent bronchodilators were less efficacious than beta2-agonists. Inhaled anticholinergics were also less efficacious than inhaled anticholinergics combined with beta2-agonists. Inhaled anticholinergic drugs alone are not appropriate for use as a single agent in children with acute asthma exacerbations.
  • Instruments for assessing readiness to commence suck feeds in preterm infants: effects on time to establish full oral feeding and duration of hospitalisation
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There is currently no evidence to inform clinical practice, with no studies meeting the inclusion criteria for this review. Research is needed in this area to establish an evidence base for the clinical utility of implementing the use of an instrument to assess feeding readiness in the preterm infant population.
  • Interventions for congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot)
    13 Studien (n= 507)
    From the limited evidence available, the Ponseti technique may produce better short-term outcomes compared to the Kite technique. An accelerated Ponseti technique may be as effective as a standard technique. We could draw no conclusions from other included trials because of the limited use of validated outcome measures and lack of available raw data. Future randomised controlled trials should address these issues.
  • Intracystic bleomycin for cystic craniopharyngiomas in children
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    Since no RCTs, quasi-randomised trials or CCTs in which only the use of intracystic bleomycin differed between the treatment groups in the treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas in children, no definitive conclusions could be made about the effects of intracystic bleomycin in these patients. Only one low-power RCT comparing intracystic bleomycin with intracystic 32P treatment was available, but no definitive conclusions can be made about the effectiveness of these agents in children with cystic craniopharyngiomas. Based on the currently available evidence, we are not able to give recommendations for the use of intracystic bleomycin in the treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas in children. High quality RCTs are needed.
  • Prophylactic antibiotics to reduce morbidity and mortality in newborn infants with intercostal catheters
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There are no data from randomised trials to either support or refute the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for intercostal catheter insertion in neonates. Any randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis would need to account for the fact that neonates who require insertion of an intercostal catheter may already be receiving antibiotics for other indications.
  • Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children
    26 Studien (n= 2740)
    No clinically important benefits for children with febrile seizures were found for intermittent oral diazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, intermittent rectal diazepam, valproate, pyridoxine, intermittent phenobarbitone or intermittent ibuprofen, nor for diclofenac versus placebo followed by ibuprofen, acetominophen or placebo. Adverse effects were reported in up to 30% of children. Apparent benefit for clobazam treatment in one recent trial needs to be replicated to be judged reliable. Given the benign nature of recurrent febrile seizures, and the high prevalence of adverse effects of these drugs, parents and families should be supported with adequate contact details of medical services and information on recurrence, first aid management and, most importantly, the benign nature of the phenomenon.
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression after treatment with glucocorticoid therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
    7 Studien (n= 189)
    Based on the available evidence, we conclude that adrenal insufficiency commonly occurs in the first days after cessation of glucocorticoid therapy for childhood ALL, but the exact duration is unclear. Since no data on the level of the hypothalamus and the pituitary were available we cannot make any conclusions regarding those outcomes. Clinicians should consider prescribing glucocorticoid replacement therapy during periods of serious stress in the first weeks after cessation of glucocorticoid therapy for childhood ALL, to reduce the risk of life-threatening complications. However, more high-quality research is needed for evidence-based guidelines for glucocorticoid replacement therapy.
    Special attention should be paid to patients receiving fluconazole therapy, and perhaps similar antifungal drugs, as this may prolong the duration of adrenal insufficiency.
  • Body positioning for spontaneously breathing preterm infants with apnoea
    5 Studien (n= 114)
    There is insufficient evidence to determine the role of body positioning on apnoea, bradycardia, oxygen desaturation and oxygen saturation. Large randomised controlled trials are needed to determine the effect of body positioning on cardiorespiratory function in spontaneously breathing preterm infants.


  • Exercise interventions for shoulder dysfunction in patients treated for head and neck cancer
    3 Studien (n= 104)
    Limited evidence from two RCTs demonstrated that PRT is more effective than standard physiotherapy treatment for shoulder dysfunction in patients treated for head and neck cancer, improving pain, disability and range of motion of the shoulder joint, but it does not improve quality of life. However, although statistically significant the measured benefits of the intervention may be small. Other exercise regimes were not shown to be effective compared to routine postoperative physiotherapy.
  • Thalidomide for managing cancer cachexia
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    The review authors cannot confirm or refute previous literature on the use of thalidomide for patients with advanced cancer who have cachexia and there is inadequate evidence to recommend it for clinical practice. Additional, well conducted, large RCTs are needed to test thalidomide both singularly and in combination with other treatment modalities to ascertain its true benefit, if any, for this population. Furthermore, one study (out of the three reviewed) highlighted that thalidomide was poorly tolerated and its use needs to be explored further in light of the frailty of this population.
  • Herbal medicines for advanced colorectal cancer
    20 Studien (n= 1304)
    Some herbal medicines combined chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone showed more beneficial effects in improving 1-year, 3-year survival and quality of life.
  • Medical interventions for the prevention of platinum-induced hearing loss in children with cancer
    3 Studien (n= 149)
    At the moment there is no evidence from individual studies in children with osteosarcoma and hepatoblastoma treated with different platinum analogues and dosage schedules which underscores the use of amifostine as an otoprotective intervention as compared to no additional treatment. Since pooling of results was not possible and all studies had serious methodological limitations, no definitive conclusions can be made. It should be noted that 'no evidence of effect', as identified in this review, is not the same as 'evidence of no effect'. Based on the currently available evidence, we are not able to give recommendations for clinical practice. For other possible otoprotective medical interventions and other types of malignancies no eligible studies were identified, so no conclusions can be made about their efficacy in preventing ototoxicity in children treated with platinum-based therapy. More high quality research is needed.
  • Chemotherapy for brain metastases from small cell lung cancer
    3 Studien (n= 192)
    Given the paucity of robust studies assessing the clinical effects of treatments, available evidence is insufficient to judge the effectiveness and safety of chemotherapy for the treatment of BM from SCLC. Published studies are insufficient to address the objectives of this review. According to the available evidence included in this review, chemotherapy does not improve specific brain PFS and OS in patients with SCLC. The combined treatment of teniposide and brain radiation therapy contributed to outcome in terms of increased complete remission and shorter time to progression (though not OS).
  • Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment
    5 Studien
    Our review did not find sufficient evidence to justify the use of G. lucidum as a first-line treatment for cancer. It remains uncertain whether G. lucidum helps prolong long-term cancer survival. However, G. lucidum could be administered as an alternative adjunct to conventional treatment in consideration of its potential of enhancing tumour response and stimulating host immunity. G. lucidum was generally well tolerated by most participants with only a scattered number of minor adverse events. No major toxicity was observed across the studies. Although there were few reports of harmful effect of G. lucidum, the use of its extract should be judicious, especially after thorough consideration of cost-benefit and patient preference. Future studies should put emphasis on the improvement in methodological quality and further clinical research on the effect of G. lucidum on cancer long-term survival are needed. An update to this review will be performed every two years.
  • Radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer
    18 Studien
    This systematic review gathers information from several controlled clinical trials and observational studies which are vulnerable to different types of bias. The imbalance between characteristics of patients in the allocated groups appears to be the main concern. Only one randomised clinical trial (published as an abstract), comparing 60 patients receiving RFA plus CT versus 59 patients receiving CT alone, was identified. This study showed that PFS was significantly higher in the group that received RFA. However, it was not able to provide information on overall survival. In conclusion, evidence from the included studies are insufficient to recommend RFA for a radical oncological treatment of CRLMs.


  • Cognitive behaviour therapy versus other psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia
    20 Studien
    Trial-based evidence suggests no clear and convincing advantage for cognitive behavioural therapy over other - and sometime much less sophisticated - therapies for people with schizophrenia.

  • Modifications of the Epley (canalith repositioning) manoeuvre for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)
    11 Studien (n = 855)
    There is evidence supporting a statistically significant effect of post-Epley postural restrictions in comparison to the Epley manoeuvre alone. However, it important to note that this statistically significant effect only highlights a small improvement in treatment efficacy. An Epley manoeuvre alone is effective in just under 80% of patients with typical BPPV. The additional intervention of postural restrictions has a number needed to treat (NNT) of 10. The addition of postural restrictions does not expose the majority of patients to risk of harm, does not pose a major inconvenience, and can be routinely discussed and advised.
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for fibromyalgia syndrome
    2 Studien (n = 230)
    Data suggest that the effectiveness of MAOIs for the treatment of FM symptoms is limited. Although we observed a moderate effect size on pain and a small one on tender points, these results should be taken with caution as they are only based on two studies with a small number of patients and inconsistent risk of bias among them.

  • Sildenafil citrate for erectile dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis
    2 Studien (n =420)
    There is limited evidence to support sildenafil citrate as an effective treatment for ED in patients with MS. Future well designed randomised, double blinded, placebo-controlled trials with long-term duration are needed.

  • Treatment for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease
    20 Studien (n= 4789)

  • There is no evidence to support the use of any intervention for muscle cramps in ALS/MND. More and larger randomised controlled trials evaluating treatments for muscle cramps in ALS/MND are needed.

  • Aripiprazole for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
    2 Studien (n =316)
    Evidence from two randomized controlled trials suggests that aripiprazole can be effective in treating some behavioral aspects of ASD in children. After treatment with aripiprazole, children showed less irritability, hyperactivity, and stereotypies (repetitive, purposeless actions). Notable side effects must be considered, however, such as weight gain, sedation, drooling, and tremor. Longer studies of aripiprazole in individuals with ASD would be useful to gain information on long-term safety and efficacy.

  • Clonazepam for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    This review uncovered no evidence of sufficient quality to support the use of clonazepam in chronic neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia.
  • Home-based therapy programmes for upper limb functional recovery following stroke
    4 Studien (n= 166)
    There is insufficient good quality evidence to make recommendations about the relative effect of home-based therapy programmes compared with placebo, no intervention or usual care.
  • Iron for restless legs syndrome
    6 Studien (n= 192)
    There is insufficient evidence to determine whether iron therapy is beneficial for the treatment of RLS. Further research to determine whether some or all types of RLS patients may benefit from iron therapy, as well as the best route of iron administration, is needed.
  • Maintenance treatment with antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia
    65 Studien (n= 6493)
    The results clearly demonstrate the superiority of antipsychotic drugs compared to placebo in preventing relapse. This effect must be weighed against the side effects of antipsychotic drugs. Future studies should focus on outcomes of social participation and clarify the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with these drugs.
  • Phenytoin for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    This review uncovered no evidence of sufficient quality to support the use of phenytoin in chronic neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia.
  • Cannabinoids for epilepsy
    4 Studien (n= 48)
    No reliable conclusions can be drawn at present regarding the efficacy of cannabinoids as a treatment for epilepsy. The dose of 200 to 300 mg daily of cannabidiol was safely administered to small numbers of patients, for generally short periods of time, and so the safety of long term cannabidiol treatment cannot be reliably assessed.
  • Crisis interventions for people with borderline personality disorder
    2 laufende Studien
    A comprehensive search of the literature showed that currently there is no RCT-based evidence for the management of acute crises in people with BPD and therefore we could not reach any conclusions about the effectiveness of any single crisis intervention. High-quality, large-scale, adequately powered RCTs in this area are urgently needed.
  • Enhanced glucose control for preventing and treating diabetic neuropathy
    10 Studien (n über 6000)
    According to high-quality evidence, enhanced glucose control significantly prevents the development of clinical neuropathy and reduces nerve conduction and vibration threshold abnormalities in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, enhanced glucose control reduces the incidence of clinical neuropathy, although this was not formally statistically significant (P = 0.06). However, enhanced glucose control does significantly reduce nerve conduction and vibration threshold abnormalities. Importantly, enhanced glucose control significantly increases the risk of severe hypoglycemic episodes, which needs to be taken into account when evaluating its risk/benefit ratio.
  • Losigamone add-on therapy for partial epilepsy
    2 Studien (n= 467)
    The results of this review showed losigamone can reduce seizure frequency but was associated with more treatment withdrawals when used as an add-on therapy for people with partial epilepsy. However, trials included were of short-term duration and uncertain quality. Future well-designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with a longer-term duration are needed.
  • Melatonin as add-on treatment for epilepsy
    4 Studien (n= 102)
    Included studies were of poor methodologic quality, and did not systematically evaluate seizure frequency and adverse events, so that it was impossible to summarize data in a meta-analysis. It is not possible to draw any conclusion about the role of melatonin in reducing seizure frequency or improving quality of life in patients with epilepsy.
  • Paliperidone palmitate for schizophrenia
    5 Studien (n= 2215)
    In short-term studies, paliperidone palmitate is an antipsychotic drug that is more efficacious than placebo. We found its adverse effects to be similar to those of its related compounds, paliperidone and risperidone, with extrapyramidal movement disorders, weight gain, and tachycardia all more common with paliperidone palmitate than placebo. While no difference was found in the incidence of reported adverse sexual outcomes, paliperidone palmitate is associated with substantial increases in serum prolactin. When flexibly dosed with a mean doses of approximately 70 to 110 mg every four weeks, paliperidone palmitate appears comparable in efficacy and tolerability to risperidone long-acting injection flexibly dosed with mean doses of approximately 35 mg every two weeks.


  • Botulinum toxin for myofascial pain syndromes in adults
    4 Studien (n=233)
    There is inconclusive evidence to support the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of MPS based on data from four studies with a total of 233 participants, which we considered adequate to be included in this review. Meta-analyses were not possible due to the heterogeneity between studies.
  • Patellar taping for patellofemoral pain syndrome in adults
    5 Studien (n= 200)
    The currently available evidence from trials reporting clinically relevant outcomes is low quality and insufficient to draw conclusions on the effects of taping, whether used on its own or as part of a treatment programme.



  • Treatments for adults with prominent lower front teeth
    2 Studien
    There is insufficient evidence from the two included trials, to conclude that one procedure is better or worse than another. The included trials compared different interventions and were at high risk of bias and therefore no implications for practice can be given. Further high quality randomized controlled trials with long term follow-up are required.
  • Single crowns versus conventional fillings for the restoration of root filled teeth
    1 Studie (n= 117)
    There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of conventional fillings over crowns for the restoration of root filled teeth. Until more evidence becomes available clinicians should continue to base decisions on how to restore root filled teeth on their own clinical experience, whilst taking into consideration the individual circumstances and preferences of their patients.


  • Antifibrinolytic therapy to reduce haemoptysis from any cause
    2 Studien
    There is insufficient evidence to judge whether antifibrinolytics should be used to treat haemoptysis from any cause, though limited evidence suggests they may reduce the duration of bleeding.

  • Interventions for improving outcomes in patients with multimorbidity in primary care and community settings
    10 Studien
    This review highlights the paucity of research into interventions to improve outcomes for multimorbidity with the focus to date being on co-morbid conditions or multimorbidity in older patients. The limited results suggest that interventions to date have had mixed effects but have shown a tendency to improve prescribing and medication adherence, particularly if interventions can be targeted at risk factors or specific functional difficulties in people with co-morbid conditions or multimorbidity. There is a need for clear definitions of participants, consideration of appropriate outcomes, and further pragmatic studies based in primary care settings.
  • Interventions for restoring patency of occluded central venous catheter lumens
    7 Studien (n=632)
    There is inadequate evidence to draw strong conclusions on the efficacy or safety of the drug interventions included in this review. There is some low quality evidence from a meta-analysis of two studies investigating urokinase (various strengths) and some very low evidence from two single studies investigating alteplase 2 mg/2 mL that suggest that these two drug interventions may be effective in treating withdrawal or total occlusion of CVC lumens caused by thrombosis.
  • Negative pressure wound therapy for skin grafts and surgical wounds healing by primary intention
    5 Studien (n=280)
    Evidence for the effectiveness of NPWT on complete healing of wounds expected to heal by primary intention remains unclear. Rates of graft loss may be lower when NPWT is used; but evidence to date suggests that hospital-based products are as effective in this area as commercial applications. There are clear cost benefits when non-commercial systems are used to create the negative pressure required for wound therapy, with no reduction in clinical outcome.

  • Spiritual and religious interventions for well-being of adults in the terminal phase of disease
    5 Studien (n= 1130)
    We found inconclusive evidence that interventions with spiritual or religious components for adults in the terminal phase of a disease may or may not enhance well-being. Such interventions are under-evaluated. All five studies identified were undertaken in the same country, and in the multi-disciplinary palliative care interventions it is unclear if all participants received support from a chaplain or a spiritual counsellor. Moreover, it is unclear in all the studies whether the participants in the comparative groups received spiritual or religious support, or both, as part of routine care or from elsewhere. The paucity of quality research indicates a need for more rigorous studies.

  • Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy for older people
    10 Studien
    It is unclear if interventions to improve appropriate polypharmacy, such as pharmaceutical care, resulted in a clinically significant improvement; however, they appear beneficial in terms of reducing inappropriate prescribing and medication-related problems.

  • Nutritional support for liver disease
    37 Studien, nur eine mit geringem Risiko für Bias
    The data do not compellingly justify the routine use of parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or oral nutritional supplements in patients with liver disease. The fact that all but one of these trials were at high risks of bias even casts doubt on the few benefits that were demonstrated. Data from well-designed and executed randomised trials that include an untreated control group are needed before any such recommendation can be made. Future trials have to be powered adequately to see small, but clinically important, differences.

  • Patient education and counselling for promoting adherence to treatment for tuberculosis
    3 Studien (n= 1437)
    Educational or counselling interventions may improve completion of treatment for latent tuberculosis. As would be expected, the magnitude of the benefit is likely to depend on the nature of the intervention, and the reasons for low completion rates in the specific setting.

  • Mobile phone messaging for communicating results of medical investigations
    1 Studie (n= 2782)
    We found very limited evidence of low quality that communicating results of medical investigations by mobile phone messaging may make little or no difference to women's anxiety overall or in women with positive test results, but may reduce anxiety in women with negative test results. However, with only one study included in this review, this evidence is insufficient to inform recommendations at this time.

  • Sedative techniques for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    4 Studien (n= 510)
    Results from individual studies suggested that patients have a better recovery profile after propofol sedation for ERCP procedures than after midazolam and meperidine sedation. As there was no difference between the two sedation techniques as regards safety, propofol sedation is probably preferred for patients undergoing ERCP procedures. However, in all of the studies that were identified only non-anaesthesia personnel were involved in administering the sedation. It would be helpful if further research was conducted where anaesthesia personnel were involved in the administration of sedation for ERCP procedures. This would clarify the extent to which anaesthesia personnel should be involved in the administration of propofol sedation.

  • Telemedicine for the support of parents of high-risk newborn infants
    1 Studie
    There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of telemedicine technology to support the parents of high-risk newborn infants receiving intensive care. Clinical trials are needed to assess the application of telemedicine to support parents and families of infants in NICU with length of hospital stay and their perception of NICU care as the major outcomes.

  • Virtual reality simulation training for health professions trainees in gastrointestinal endoscopy
    13 Studien (n= 278)
    The results of this systematic review indicate that virtual reality endoscopy training can be used to effectively supplement early conventional endoscopy training (apprenticeship model) in diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and/or sigmoidoscopy for health professions trainees with limited or no prior endoscopic experience. However, there remains insufficient evidence to advise for or against the use of virtual reality simulation-based training as a replacement for early conventional endoscopy training (apprenticeship model) for health professions trainees with limited or no prior endoscopic experience. There is a great need for the development of a reliable and valid measure of endoscopic performance prior to the completion of further randomised clinical trials with high methodological quality.



Zuletzt verändert: 18.06.2012