Die 5 Minuten Evidenz - Cochrane Ausgabe 3/2012

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Ausgabe 3/2012 der Cochrane Library


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Aktivität Atmung Augen
Chirurgie Frauen Haut
Herz, Kreislauf, CVD Infektion Kinder
Knochen Krebs Neurologie/
Schmerz Sucht Urologie/
Zahn Diverses


pfeil.gifZu ausgewählten Updates mit veränderter klinischer Konsequenz



  • Ergonomic design and training for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb and neck in adults
    13 Studien (n= 2397)
    We found moderate-quality evidence to suggest that the use of arm support with alternative mouse may reduce the incidence of neck/shoulder MSDs, but not right upper limb MSDs. Moreover, we found moderate-quality evidence to suggest that the incidence of neck/shoulder and right upper limb MSDs is not reduced when comparing alternative and conventional mouse with and without arm support. However, given there were multiple comparisons made involving a number of interventions and outcomes, high-quality evidence is needed to determine the effectiveness of these interventions clearly. While we found very-low- to low-quality evidence to suggest that other ergonomic interventions do not prevent work-related MSDs of the upper limb and neck, this was limited by the paucity and heterogeneity of available studies. This review highlights the need for high-quality RCTs examining the prevention of MSDs of the upper limb and neck.
  • Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors
    40 Studien (n= 3694)
    This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects on HRQoL and certain HRQoL domains including cancer-specific concerns (e.g. breast cancer), body image/self-esteem, emotional well-being, sexuality, sleep disturbance, social functioning, anxiety, fatigue, and pain at varying follow-up periods. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously due to the heterogeneity of exercise programs tested and measures used to assess HRQoL and HRQoL domains, and the risk of bias in many trials.
  • Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for people with cancer during active treatment
    56 Studien (n= 4826)
    This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects at varying follow-up periods on HRQoL and certain HRQoL domains including physical functioning, role function, social functioning, and fatigue. Positive effects of exercise interventions are more pronounced with moderate- or vigorous-intensity versus mild-intensity exercise programs. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously because of the heterogeneity of exercise programs tested and measures used to assess HRQoL and HRQoL domains, and the risk of bias in many trials.
  • Exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
    2 Studien (n= 154)
    There is a lack of high quality evidence to recommend the use of SSE for AIS. One very low quality study suggested that these exercises may be more effective than electrostimulation, traction and postural training to avoid scoliosis progression, but better quality research needs to be conducted before the use of SSE can be recommended in clinical practice.
  • Magnesium for skeletal muscle cramps
    7 Studien (n=406)
    It is unlikely that magnesium supplementation provides clinically meaningful cramp prophylaxis to older adults experiencing skeletal muscle cramps. In contrast, for those experiencing pregnancy-associated rest cramps the literature is conflicting and further research in this patient population is needed. We found no randomized controlled trials evaluating magnesium for exercise-associated muscle cramps or disease state-associated muscle cramps (for example amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease).




  • Tiotropium versus placebo for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    22 Studien (n= 23309)
    This review shows that tiotropium treatment was associated with a significant improvement in patients' quality of life and it reduced the risk of exacerbations, with a number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) of 16 to prevent one exacerbation. Tiotropium also reduced exacerbations leading to hospitalisation but no significant difference was found for hospitalisation of any cause or mortality. Thus, tiotropium appears to be a reasonable choice for the management of patients with stable COPD, as proposed in guidelines. The review however, shows that tiotropium delivered via the Respimat soft mist inhaler was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality compared with placebo, which calls for caution with this device whilst awaiting the results of an ongoing head-to-head trial comparing tiotropium delivery devices and doses.
  • Weight loss interventions for chronic asthma
    4 Studien (n= 197)
    This review found one randomized trial that showed that weight loss may be beneficial for improving asthma control in overweight and obese patients, in conjunction with weight loss in intervention groups in the short term. Applying the GRADE system to the results of this review however, shows that the quality of evidence is low, because although all four studies are RCTs there were serious methodological limitations in the studies (unclear risk of selection bias and high risk of detection bias) and imprecision (small sample size).
  • Pneumococcal vaccines for cystic fibrosis

    Keine geeigneten Studien
    As no trials were identified we cannot draw conclusions on the efficacy of routine pneumococcal immunisation in people with cystic fibrosis in reducing their morbidity or mortality. As many countries now include pneumococcal immunisation in their routine childhood vaccination schedule it is unlikely that future randomised controlled trials will be initiated.

  • Tiotropium versus long-acting beta-agonists for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    7 Studien (n= 12.223)
    In people with COPD, the evidence is equivocal as to whether or not tiotropium offers greater benefit than LABAs in improving quality of life; however, this is complicated by differences in effect among the LABA types. Tiotropium was more effective than LABAs as a group in preventing COPD exacerbations and disease-related hospitalisations, although there were no statistical differences between groups in overall hospitalisation rates or mortality during the study periods. There were fewer serious adverse events and study withdrawals recorded with tiotropium compared with LABAs. Symptom improvement and changes in lung function were similar between the treatment groups. Given the small number of studies to date, with high levels of heterogeneity among them, one approach may be to give a COPD patient a substantial trial of tiotropium, followed by a LABA (or vice versa), then to continue prescribing the long-acting bronchodilator that the patient prefers.



  • Orbital radiotherapy for adult thyroid eye disease
    5 Studien (n= 244)
    This review found that orbital radiotherapy is more effective than sham radiotherapy for the treatment of mild-to-moderate thyroid eye disease. In a single trial no difference between radiotherapy and steroid monotherapy was found. A meta-analysis of our secondary outcome of disease severity was not possible but results from individual trials suggest a better outcome with combination treatment with steroids versus steroids alone. No significant changes in quality-of-life scores following treatment with radiotherapy versus alternative treatments were found. Short-term adverse events related to radiotherapy that were reported were local and mild but long-term data were lacking and development of retinal changes following radiotherapy was not reported on.
  • Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular burns
    1 Studie (n= 100)
    Conclusive evidence supporting the treatment of acute ocular surface burns with AMT is lacking. Heterogeneity of disease presentation, variations in treatment, undefined criteria for treatment success and failure, and non-uniform outcome measures are some of the factors complicating the search for clear evidence regarding this treatment.
  • Interventions for late trabeculectomy bleb leak
    1 Studie (n= 30)
    Although a variety of treatments have been proposed for bleb leaks, there is no evidence of their comparative effectiveness. The evidence in this review was provided by a single trial that compared two surgical procedures (conjunctival advancement and amniotic membrane transplant). The trial did show a superiority of conjunctival advancement, which was regarded as standard treatment, to amniotic membrane transplantation.
  • Topical cyclosporine for atopic keratoconjunctivitis
    3 Studien (n= 58)
    This systematic review highlights the relative scarcity of controlled clinical trials assessing the efficacy of topical CsA therapy in AKC and suggests that evidence on the efficacy and safety of topical CsA treatment in patients with CsA remains limited. However, the data suggest that topical CsA may provide clinical and symptomatic relief in AKC and may help to reduce topical steroid use in patients with steroid-dependent or steroid-resistant AKC. No serious adverse events were reported.


  • Open Preperitoneal Techniques versus Lichtenstein Repair for elective Inguinal Hernias
    3 Studien (n= 569)
    Both techniques are valid as they result in similar low recurrence rates. Evaluation of pain results in the individual trials shows some evidence that preperitoneal repair causes less or comparable acute and chronic pain compared to the Lichtenstein procedure. We emphasize the need for homogeneous high quality randomized trials comparing elective preperitoneal inguinal hernia techniques and Lichtenstein repair in terms of chronic pain.
  • Platelet rich therapies for long bone healing in adults
    1 Studie (n= 21)
    While a potential benefit of platelet-rich therapies to augment long bone healing in adults cannot be ruled out, the currently available evidence from a single trial is insufficient to support the routine use of this intervention in clinical practice. Future trials should focus on reporting patient-reported functional outcomes from all trial participants for a minimum follow-up of one year.
  • Preoperative alcohol cessation prior to elective surgery
    2 Studien (n= 69)
    Based on the finding of two studies, it appears that intensive preoperative alcohol cessation interventions, including pharmacological strategies for relapse prophylaxis and withdrawal symptoms, may significantly reduce postoperative complication rates. No effect was found on mortality rates and length of stay.
    The effect of preoperative alcohol cessation intervention should be further explored in an effort to reduce the adverse effect of alcohol use on surgical outcomes. The number needed to screen to identify eligible patients for alcohol intervention studies in surgical settings seems to be extremely high. This may indicate that these studies are difficult to perform. Nevertheless, timing, duration and intensity of alcohol cessation interventions need to be subject to further investigation.
  • Splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome
    19 Studien (n=1190)
    Overall, there is limited evidence that a splint worn at night is more effective than no treatment in the short term, but there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of one splint design or wearing regimen over others, and of splint over other non-surgical interventions for CTS. More research is needed on the long-term effects of this intervention for CTS.
  • Non-resection versus resection for an asymptomatic primary tumour in patients with unresectable Stage IV colorectal cancer
    7 nichtrandomisierte Studien
    Resection of the primary tumour in asymptomatic patients with unresectable stage IV colorectal cancer who are managed with chemo/radiotherapy is not associated with a consistent improvement in overall survival. In addition, resection does not significantly reduce the risk of complications from the primary tumour (i.e.  obstruction, perforation or bleeding). Yet there is enough doubt with regard to the published literature to justify further clinical trials in this area. The results from an ongoing high quality randomised controlled trial will help to answer this question.
  • Nutritional interventions for liver-transplanted patients
    13 Studien
    We were unable to identify nutritional interventions for liver transplanted patients that seemed to offer convincing benefits. Further randomised clinical trials with low risk of bias and powerful sample sizes are needed.
  • Surgical versus conservative interventions for treating ankle fractures in adults
    4 Studien (n= 292)
    There is currently insufficient evidence to conclude whether surgical or conservative treatment produces superior long-term outcomes for ankle fractures in adults. The identification of several ongoing randomised trials means that better evidence to inform this question is likely to be available in future.
  • Cryotherapy following total knee replacement
    11 Studien (n= 809)
    Potential benefits of cryotherapy on blood loss, postoperative pain, and range of motion may be too small to justify its use, and the quality of the evidence was very low or low for all main outcomes. This needs to be balanced against potential inconveniences and expenses of using cryotherapy.
  • Interposition vein cuff for infragenicular prosthetic bypass graft
    6 Studien (n= 885)
    There is evidence that a vein cuff at the distal anastomosis site improves primary graft patency rates for below knee PTFE graft, but this does not reduce the risk of limb loss. Pre-cuffed PTFE grafts have comparable patency and limb salvage rates to vein cuff PTFE grafts. The use of spliced veins improved secondary patency but this did not translate into improved limb salvage. The use of an AVF alone showed no added benefits. Evidence for a beneficial effect of vein cuffed PTFE grafts is weak and based on underpowered trials. A large study with a specific focus on below knee vein cuff prosthetic grafts, including PTFE, is required.
  • Perioperative glycaemic control for diabetic patients undergoing surgery
    12 Studien (n= 694)
    The included trials did not demonstrate significant differences for most of the outcomes when targeting intensive perioperative glycaemic control compared with conventional glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus.
  • Unfractionated heparin versus low molecular weight heparin for avoiding heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative patients
    2 Studien (n= 923)
    There was a lower incidence of HIT and HIT complicated by VTE in postoperative patients undergoing thromboprophylaxis with LMWH compared with UFH. This is consistent with the current clinical use of LMWH over UFH as front-line heparin therapy. However, conclusions are limited by a scarcity of high quality evidence. We did not expect the paucity of RCTs including HIT as an outcome as heparin is one of the most commonly used drugs worldwide and HIT is a life-threatening adverse drug reaction. To address the scarcity of clinically-relevant information on the topic of HIT as a whole, HIT should be included as an outcome in future RCTs of heparin, and HIT as an adverse drug reaction should be considered in clinical recommendations regarding monitoring of the platelet count for HIT.


  • Endometrial injury in women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques
    5 Studien (n= 591)
    Endometrial injury performed prior to the embryo transfer cycle improves clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in women undergoing ART. It is advisable not to perform endometrial injury on the day of oocyte retrieval because it appears to significantly reduce clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates. There is insufficient evidence regarding the effect of endometrial injury on multiple pregnancy or miscarriage and none on adverse events such as pain and bleeding.
  • Exercise for pregnant women for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus
    5 Studien (n= 1115)
    There is limited randomised controlled trial evidence available on the effect of exercise during pregnancy for preventing pregnancy glucose intolerance or GDM. Results from three randomised trials with moderate risk of bias suggested no significant difference in GDM incidence between women receiving an additional exercise intervention and routine care. Based on the limited data currently available, conclusive evidence is not available to guide practice.
  • Immediate versus deferred delivery of the preterm baby with suspected fetal compromise for improving outcomes
    1 Studie (n=548)
    Currently there is insufficient evidence on the benefits and harms of immediate delivery compared with deferred delivery in cases of suspected fetal compromise at preterm gestations to make firm recommendations to guide clinical practice. Where there is uncertainty whether or not to deliver a preterm fetus with suspected fetal compromise, there seems to be no benefit to immediate delivery. Deferring delivery until test results worsen or increasing gestation favours delivery may improve the outcomes for mother and baby. More research is needed to guide clinical practice.
  • Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy
    18 Studien (n= 4072)
    The present systematic review is the most comprehensive summary of the evidence assessing the benefits and harms of intermittent iron supplementation regimens in pregnant women on haematological and pregnancy outcomes. The findings suggest that intermittent iron+folic acid regimens produce similar maternal and infant outcomes at birth as daily supplementation but are associated with fewer side effects. Women receiving daily supplements had increased risk of developing high levels of Hb in mid and late pregnancy but were less likely to present mild anaemia near term. Although the evidence is limited and the quality of the trials was low or very low, intermittent may be a feasible alternative to daily iron supplementation among those pregnant women who are not anaemic and have adequate antenatal care.
  • Toremifene versus tamoxifen for advanced breast cancer
    7 Studien (n= 2061)
    TOR and TAM are equally effective and the safety profile of the former is at least not worse than the latter in the first-line treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer. Thus, TOR may serve as a reasonable alternative to TAM when anti-oestrogens are applicable but TAM is not the preferred choice for some reason.
  • Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF) targeting therapies for endocrine refractory or resistant metastatic breast cancer
    7 Studien
    The overall patient benefit from adding bevacizumab to first- and second-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer can at best be considered as modest. It is dependent on the type of chemotherapy used and limited to a prolongation of PFS and response rates in both first- and second-line therapy, both surrogate parameters. In contrast, bevacizumab has no significant impact on the patient-related secondary outcomes of OS or QoL, which indicate a direct patient benefit. For this reason, the clinical value of bevacizumab for metastatic breast cancer remains controversial.
  • Antispasmodics for labour
    19 Studien (n= 2798)
    There is low quality evidence that antispasmodics reduce the duration of first stage of labour and increase the cervical dilatation rate. There is very low quality evidence that antispasmodics reduce the total duration of labour. There is moderate quality evidence that antispasmodics do not affect the rate of normal vertex deliveries. There is insufficient evidence to make any conclusions regarding the safety of these drugs for both mother and baby.
  • Genital ulcer disease treatment for reducing sexual acquisition of HIV
    3 Studien (n= 173)
    At present, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether curative treatment of genital ulcer disease would reduce the risk of HIV acquisition. The very low quality of the evidence implies that the true effect of genital ulcer disease treatment on sexual acquisition of HIV may be substantially different from the effect estimated from currently available data. However, genital ulcer diseases are public health problems in their own right and patients with these conditions should be treated appropriately; whether the treatment reduces the risk of HIV infection or not.
  • Mifepristone for uterine fibroids
    3 Studien (n= 112)
    Mifepristone reduced heavy menstrual bleeding and improved fibroid-specific quality of life. However, it was not found to reduce fibroid volume. Further well-designed, adequately powered RCTs are needed before a recommendation can be made on the use of mifepristone for the treatment of uterine fibroids.
  • Relaxation therapy for preventing and treating preterm labour
    11 Studien (n= 833)
    According to the results of this review, there is some evidence that relaxation during pregnancy reduces stress and anxiety. However, there was no effect on PTL/PTB. These results should be interpreted with caution as they were drawn from included studies with limited quality.
  • Steroidal contraceptives and bone fractures in women: evidence from observational studies
    14 Studien
    Observational studies do not indicate an overall association between OC use and fracture risk. Some reported increased risk for specific user subgroups. DMPA users may have an increased fracture risk. One study indicated hormonal IUD use may be associated with decreased risk. Observational studies need adjusted analysis because the comparison groups usually differ. Researchers should be clear about the variables examined in multivariate analysis.
  • Inhaled analgesia for pain management in labour
    26 Studien (n= 2959)
    Inhaled analgesia appears to be effective in reducing pain intensity and in giving pain relief in labour. However, substantial heterogeneity was detected for pain intensity. Furthermore, nitrous oxide appears to result in more side effects compared with flurane derivatives. Flurane derivatives result in more drowsiness when compared with nitrous oxide. When inhaled analgesia is compared with no treatment or placebo, nitrous oxide appears to result in even more side effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness and drowsiness. There is no evidence for differences for any of the outcomes comparing one strength versus a different strength of inhaled analgesia, comparing different delivery systems or comparing inhaled analgesia with TENS.
  • Laparoscopy versus laparotomy for the management of early stage endometrial cancer
    8 Studien (n= 3644)
    This review has found evidence to support the role of laparoscopy for the management of early endometrial cancer.
    For presumed early stage primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, laparoscopy is associated with similar overall and disease-free survival. Laparoscopy is associated with reduced operative morbidity and hospital stay. There is no significant difference in severe post-operative morbidity between the two modalities.
  • Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy
    6 Studien (n= 1745)
    Nicotine replacement therapy is the only pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation that has been tested in RCTs conducted in pregnancy.  There is insufficient evidence to determine whether or not NRT is effective or safe when used to promote smoking cessation in pregnancy or to determine whether or not using NRT has positive or negative impacts on birth outcomes.
  • Skin preparation for preventing infection following caesarean section
    5 Studien (n= 1462)
    Little evidence is available from the included randomised controlled trials to evaluate different agent forms, concentrations and methods of skin preparation for preventing infection following caesarean section. Therefore, it is not yet clear what sort of skin preparation may be most efficient for preventing postcaesarean wound and surgical site infection. There is a need for high-quality, properly designed randomised controlled trials with larger sample sizes in this field. High priority questions include comparing types of antiseptic (especially iodine versus chlorhexidine), the timing and duration of applying the antiseptic (especially previous night versus day of surgery, and application methods (scrubbing, swabbing and draping).

Herz, Kreislauf, CVD

  • Rheum officinale (a traditional Chinese medicine) for chronic kidney disease
    9 Studien (n= 682)
    Currently available evidence concerning the efficacy of Rheum officinale to improve SCr and BUN levels in patients with CKD is both scant and low quality. Although Rheum officinale does not appear to be associated with serious adverse events among patients with CKD, there is no current evidence to support any recommendation for its use.
  • Adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis with and without cardiovascular collapse in the community
    Keine geeigneten  Studien
    Based on this review, we cannot make any new recommendations on the effectiveness of adrenaline auto-injectors for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Although randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of high methodological quality are necessary to define the true extent of benefits from the administration of adrenaline in anaphylaxis via an auto-injector, such trials are unlikely to be performed in individuals experiencing anaphylaxis because of ethical concerns associated with randomization to placebo. There is, however, a need to consider trials in which, for example, auto-injectors of different doses of adrenaline and differing devices are compared in order to provide greater clarity on the dose and device of choice. Such trials would be practically challenging to conduct.
  • Effect of cocoa on blood pressure
    20 Studien (n= 856)
    Flavanol-rich chocolate and cocoa products may have a small but statistically significant effect in lowering blood pressure by 2-3 mm Hg in the short term. Our findings are limited by the heterogeneity between trials, which was explored by univariate meta-regression and subgroup analyses. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events and to assess potential adverse effects associated with chronic ingestion of cocoa products.
  • Garlic for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients
    2 Studien (n= 87)
    There is insufficient evidence to determine if garlic provides a therapeutic advantage versus placebo in terms of reducing the risk of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients diagnosed with hypertension. There is also insufficient evidence to determine the difference in withdrawals due to adverse events between patients treated with garlic or placebo.
  • Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension
    4 Studien (n= 8912)
    Antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment of adults (primary prevention) with mild hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg) have not been shown to reduce mortality or morbidity in RCTs. Treatment caused 9% of patients to discontinue treatment due to adverse effects. More RCTs are needed in this prevalent population to know whether the benefits of treatment exceed the harms.
  • Cinnamon for diabetes mellitus
    10 Studien (n= 577)
    There is insufficient evidence to support the use of cinnamon for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further trials, which address the issues of allocation concealment and blinding, are now required. The inclusion of other important endpoints, such as health-related quality of life, diabetes complications and costs, is also needed.
  • High-flux versus low-flux membranes for end-stage kidney disease
    33 Studien (n= 3820)
    High-flux haemodialysis may reduce cardiovascular mortality in people requiring haemodialysis by about 15%. A large well-designed RCT is now required to confirm this finding.
  • Iron chelators for acute stroke
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of iron chelators for the treatment of acute stroke. Further RCTs are required to assess the effect of iron chelators in people with acute stroke.
  • Medical treatment for small abdominal aortic aneurysms
    7 Studien (n= 1558)
    There is some limited evidence that antibiotic medication may have a slight protective effect in retarding the expansion rates of small AAAs. The quality of the evidence makes it unclear whether this translates into fewer referrals to AAA surgery, owing mainly to the small sample sizes of the studies. Antibiotics were generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Propranolol was poorly tolerated by patients in all of the beta-blocker trials and demonstrated only minimal and non-significant protective effects. Further research on beta-blockers for AAA needs to consider the use of drugs other than propranolol. In general, there is surprisingly little high quality evidence on medical treatment for small AAAs, especially in relation to the use of newer beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and statins.


  • Hepatitis A immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis A
    11 Studien
    Hepatitis A vaccines are effective for pre-exposure prophylaxis of hepatitis A in susceptible individuals. This review demonstrated significant protection for at least two years with the inactivated HAV vaccine and at least five years with the live attenuated HAV vaccine. There was evidence to support the safety of the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. More high quality evidence is required to determine the safety of live attenuated vaccines.
  • Corticosteroids for the common cold
    2 Studien (n=253)
    Current evidence does not support the use of intranasal corticosteroids for symptomatic relief from the common cold. However, there were only two trials and limited statistical power. Further large randomised placebo-controlled trials in adults and children are required to answer this question.
  • Chinese medicinal herbs for mumps
    16 Studien (n= 2027)
    There is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of black cohosh for menopausal symptoms. However, there is adequate justification for conducting further studies in this area.
  • Integration of HIV/AIDS services with maternal, neonatal and child health, nutrition, and family planning services
    Keine randomisierten Studien
    This systematic review's findings show that integrated HIV/AIDS and MNCHN-FP services are feasible to implement and show promise towards improving a variety of health and behavioral outcomes. However, significant evidence gaps remain. Rigorous research comparing outcomes of integrated with non-integrated services, including cost, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes such as HIV and STI incidence, morbidity and mortality are greatly needed to inform programs and policy.

  • Primaquine for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission
    11 Studien (n= 1776)
    We do not know whether PQ added to treatment regimens for patients with P. falciparum infection reduces transmission of malaria. In individual patients, it reduces gametocyte prevalence and density. In practical terms, even if PQ results in large reductions in gametocytes in people being treated for malaria, there is no reliable evidence that this will reduce transmission in a malaria-endemic community, where many people are infected but have no symptoms and are unlikely to be treated. Since PQ is acting as a monotherapy against gametocytes, there is a risk of the parasite developing resistance to the drug. In terms of harms, there is insufficient evidence from trials to know whether the drug can be used safely in this way in populations where G6PD deficiency occurs. In light of these doubts about safety, and lack of evidence of any benefit in reducing transmission, countries should question whether to continue to use PQ routinely in primary treatment of malaria.

  • Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections
    14 Studien (n= 4221)
    Use of procalcitonin to guide initiation and duration of antibiotic treatment in patients with ARI was not associated with higher mortality rates or treatment failure. Antibiotic consumption was significantly reduced across different clinical settings and ARI diagnoses. Further high-quality research is needed to confirm the safety of this approach for non-European countries and patients in intensive care.
  • Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for changing HIV-related risk behavior in developing countries
    17 Studien
    These findings add to growing evidence that VCT can change HIV-related sexual risk behaviors thereby reducing HIV-related risk, and confirming its importance as an HIV prevention strategy. To maximize the effectiveness of VCT, more studies should be conducted to understand which modalities and counseling strategies produce significant reductions in risky behaviors and lead to the greatest uptake of VCT.


  • Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation
    18 Studien (n= 1643)
    The pooled analyses suggest that PEG preparations may be superior to placebo, lactulose and milk of magnesia for childhood constipation. GRADE analyses indicated that the overall quality of the evidence for the primary outcome (number of stools per week) was low or very low due to sparse data, inconsistency (heterogeneity), and high risk of bias in the studies in the pooled analyses. Thus, the results of the pooled analyses should be interpreted with caution because of quality and methodological concerns, as well as clinical heterogeneity, and short follow up. However, PEG appears safe and well tolerated. There is also evidence suggesting the efficacy of liquid paraffin (mineral oil), which was also well tolerated. There is no evidence to demonstrate the superiority of lactulose when compared to the other agents studied, although there is a lack of placebo controlled studies. Further research is needed to investigate the long term use of PEG for childhood constipation, as well as the role of liquid paraffin.
  • Antibiotics for treating lower urinary tract infection in children
    16 Studien (n= 1116)
    Although antibiotic treatment is effective for children with UTI, there are insufficient data to answer the question of which type of antibiotic or which duration is most effective to treat symptomatic lower UTI. This review found that 10-day antibiotic treatment is more likely to eliminate bacteria from the urine than single-dose treatments. No differences were observed for persistent bacteriuria, recurrence or re-infection between short and long-course antibiotics where the antibiotic differed between groups. This data adds to an existing Cochrane review comparing short and long-course treatment of the same antibiotic who also reported no evidence of difference between short and long-course antibiotics.
  • Acupuncture for mumps in children
    1 Studie (n= 239)
    We could not reach any confident conclusions about the efficacy and safety of acupuncture based on one study. More high-quality research is needed.

  • Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion in children
    23 Studien (n= 3027)
    The results of our review do not support the routine use of antibiotics for children up to 18 years with otitis media with effusion. The largest effects of antibiotics were seen in children treated continuously for four weeks and three months. Even when clear and relevant benefits of antibiotics have been demonstrated, these must be balanced against the potential adverse effects when making treatment decisions. Immediate adverse effects of antibiotics are common and the emergence of bacterial resistance has been causally linked to the widespread use of antibiotics for common conditions such as otitis media.


  • Interventions to improve continuity of care in the follow-up of patients with cancer
    51 Studien
    Results from this Cochrane review do not allow us to conclude on the effectiveness of included interventions to improve continuity of care on patient, healthcare provider or process of care outcomes. Future research should evaluate interventions that target an improvement in continuity as their primary objective and describe these interventions with the categories proposed in this review. Also of importance, continuity measures should be validated with persons with cancer who have been followed in various settings.
  • Dietary flavonoid for preventing colorectal neoplasms
    8 Studien (n= 390.769)
    There is insufficient and conflicting evidence regarding flavonoid intake and the prevention of colorectal neoplasms. It is difficult to determine flavonoid intake. Therefore, more evidence is needed to clarify the association between flavonoids and colorectal neoplasms.
  • Bendamustine for patients with indolent B cell lymphoid malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
    5 Studien (n= 1343)
    As none of the currently available chemotherapeutic protocols for induction therapy in indolent B cell lymphoid malignancies confer a survival benefit and due to the improved progression-free survival in each of the included trials, and a similar rate of grade 3 or 4 adverse events, bendamustine may be considered for the treatment of patients with indolent B cell lymphoid malignancies. However, the unclear effect on survival and the higher rate of adverse events compared to chlorambucil in patients with CLL/SLL does not support the use of bendamustine for these patients.
  • Low bacterial diet versus control diet to prevent infection in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy causing episodes of neutropenia
    3 Studien (n= 192)
    At the moment there is no evidence from individual RCTs in children and adults with different malignancies that underscores the use of an LBD for the prevention of infection and related outcomes. All studies differed with regard to co-interventions, outcome definitions, and intervention and control diets. Since pooling of results was not possible and all studies had serious methodological limitations, no definitive conclusions can be made. It should be noted that 'no evidence of effect', as identified in this review, is not the same as 'evidence of no effect'. Based on the currently available evidence, we are not able to give recommendations for clinical practice. More high-quality research is needed.
  • Polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulins for the prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell or bone marrow transplantation in adults
    6 Studien (n= 568)
    Our systematic review suggests that the addition of ATG during allogeneic HSCT significantly reduces the incidence of severe grades (II to IV) of acute GvHD, whereas the incidence of overall acute GVHD (grades I to IV) was not significantly lowered. This indicates a reduction of the severity but not the incidence of acute GVHD. However, this effect did not lead to a significant improvement of overall survival, which may be due to the severe potential side effects of the consecutively increased immunosuppression. Furthermore, future research is needed to clarify the effect of ATG on the incidence and severity of chronic GVHD and consequently on all aspects of quality of life. From the currently available data, no recommendation on the general use of ATG in allogeneic HSCT can be supported. Therefore, a careful consideration of the use of ATG based on the patient's condition and the risk factors of the transplantation setting should be made.

  • Transarterial (chemo)embolisation versus no intervention or placebo intervention for liver metastases
    1 Studie (n= 61)
    On the basis of one small randomised trial that did not describe sequence generation, allocation concealment or blinding, it can be concluded that in patients with liver metastases no significant survival benefit or benefit on extrahepatic recurrence was found in the embolisation group in comparison with the palliation group. The probability for selective outcome reporting bias in the trial is high. At present, transarterial (chemo)embolisation cannot be recommended outside randomised clinical trials.


  • Alprazolam for depression
    21 Studien (n = 2693)
    Alprazolam appears to reduce depressive symptoms more effectively than placebo and as effectively as tricyclic antidepressants. However, the studies included in the review were heterogeneous, of poor quality and only addressed short-term effects, thus limiting our confidence in the findings. Whilst the rate of all-cause withdrawals did not appear to differ between alprazolam and placebo, and withdrawals were less frequent in the alprazolam group than in any of the conventional antidepressants combined group, these findings should be interpreted with caution, given the dependency properties of benzodiazepines.
  • Citalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression
    37 Studien
    Some statistically significant differences between citalopram and other antidepressants for the acute phase treatment of major depression were found in terms of efficacy, tolerability and acceptability. Citalopram was more efficacious than paroxetine and reboxetine and more acceptable than tricyclics, reboxetine and venlafaxine, however, it seemed to be less efficacious than escitalopram. As with most systematic reviews in psychopharmacology, the potential for overestimation of treatment effect due to sponsorship bias and publication bias should be borne in mind when interpreting review findings. Economic analyses were not reported in the included studies, however, cost effectiveness information is needed in the field of antidepressant trials.
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for vascular dementia
    1 Studie (n = 64)
    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to treat a variety of conditions and has shown possible efficacy for treating vascular dementia (VaD) in experimental and preliminary clinical studies. This review included one randomised controlled trial of poor methodological quality involving 64 patients with VaD who were also taking donepezil. Safety assessment was not mentioned at all. Although the authors reported cognitive benefit, this trial alone cannot be taken as evidence of efficacy. Further well-designed randomised controlled trials are needed.
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents
    13 Studien (n= 1011)
    Overall, there is little evidence that PUFA supplementation provides any benefit for the symptoms of ADHD in children and adolescents. The majority of data showed no benefit of PUFA supplementation, although there were some limited data that did show an improvement with combined omega-3 and omega-6 supplementation.
    It is important that future research addresses current weaknesses in this area, which include small sample sizes, variability of selection criteria, variability of the type and dosage of supplementation, short follow-up times and other methodological weaknesses.
  • Music education for improving reading skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There is no evidence available from randomized controlled trials on which to base a judgment about the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. This uncertainty warrants further research via randomized controlled trials, involving a interdisciplinary team: musicians, hearing and speech therapists, psychologists, and physicians.
  • Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness
    35 Studien (n= 2723)
    There is no evidence on the effectiveness of psychological therapies that include parents in most outcome domains of functioning, for a large number of common chronic illnesses in children. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of including parents in psychological therapies that reduce pain in children with painful conditions. There is also good evidence for the effectiveness of CBT that includes parents for improving the primary symptom complaints when available data were included from chronic illness conditions. Finally, there is good evidence for the effectiveness of problem solving therapy delivered to parents on improving parent problem solving skills and parent mental health. All effects are immediately post-treatment. There are no significant findings for any treatment effects in any condition at follow-up.
  • Cholinesterase inhibitors for mild cognitive impairment
    9 Studien (n= 5149)
    There is very little evidence that cholinesterase inhibitors affect progression to dementia or cognitive test scores in mild cognitive impairment. This weak evidence is overwhelmed by the increased risk of adverse events, particularly gastrointestinal. Cholinesterase inhibitors should not be recommended for mild cognitive impairment.


  • Combination pharmacotherapy for the treatment of neuropathic pain in adults
    21 Studien (n=578)
    Multiple, good-quality studies demonstrate superior efficacy of two-drug combinations. However, the number of available studies for any one specific combination, as well as other study factors (e.g. limited trial size and duration), preclude the recommendation of any one specific drug combination for neuropathic pain. Demonstration of combination benefits by several studies together with reports of widespread clinical polypharmacy for neuropathic pain surely provide a rationale for additional future rigorous evaluations. In order to properly identify specific drug combinations which provide superior efficacy and/or safety, we recommend that future neuropathic pain studies of two-drug combinations include comparisons with placebo and both single-agent components. Given the apparent adverse impact of combining agents with similar adverse effect profiles (e.g. CNS depression), the anticipated development and availability of non-sedating neuropathic pain agents could lead to the identification of more favourable analgesic drug combinations in which side effects are not compounded.
  • Image-guided versus blind glucocorticoid injection for shoulder pain
    5 Studien (n= 290)
    Based upon moderate evidence from five trials, our review was unable to establish any advantage in terms of pain, function, shoulder range of motion or safety, of ultrasound-guided glucocorticoid injection for shoulder disorders over either landmark-guided or intramuscular injection. The lack of any added benefit of ultrasound guided subacromial bursal injection over glucocorticoid injection administered into the upper gluteal muscles of the buttock suggests that the benefits of glucocorticoid may arise through systemic rather than local effects. Therefore, although ultrasound guidance may improve the accuracy of injection to the putative site of pathology in the shoulder, it is not clear that this improves its efficacy to justify the significant added cost.
  • Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low-back pain
    20 Studien (n= 2674)
    SMT is no more effective in participants with acute low-back pain than inert interventions, sham SMT, or when added to another intervention. SMT also appears to be no better than other recommended therapies. Our evaluation is limited by the small number of studies per comparison, outcome, and time interval. Therefore, future research is likely to have an important impact on these estimates. The decision to refer patients for SMT should be based upon costs, preferences of the patients and providers, and relative safety of SMT compared to other treatment options. Future RCTs should examine specific subgroups and include an economic evaluation.
  • Topical capsaicin (low concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults
    6 Studien (n= 389)
    There were insufficient data to draw any conclusions about the efficacy of low-concentration capsaicin cream in the treatment of neuropathic pain. The information we have suggests that low-concentration topical capsaicin is without meaningful effect beyond that found in placebo creams; given the potential for bias from small study size, this makes it unlikely that low-concentration topical capsaicin has any meaningful use in clinical practice. Local skin irritation, which was often mild and transient but may lead to withdrawal, was common. Systemic adverse effects were rare.
  • Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults
    34 Studien (n= 7688)
    Topical NSAIDs can provide good levels of pain relief; topical diclofenac solution is equivalent to that of oral NSAIDs in knee and hand osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence for other chronic painful conditions. Formulation can influence efficacy. The incidence of local adverse events is increased with topical NSAIDs, but gastrointestinal adverse events are reduced compared with oral NSAIDs.



  • Interventions for tobacco use prevention in Indigenous youth
    2 Studien
    Based on the available evidence, a conclusion cannot be drawn as to the efficacy of tobacco prevention initiatives tailored for Indigenous youth. This review highlights the paucity of data and the need for more research in this area. Smoking prevalence in Indigenous youth is twice that of the non-Indigenous population, with tobacco experimentation commencing at an early age.
  • Nicotine vaccines for smoking cessation
    2 Studien
    There is currently no evidence that nicotine vaccines enhance long-term smoking cessation. Rates of serious adverse events recorded in the two trials with full data available were low, and the majority of adverse events reported were at mild to moderate levels. The evidence available suggests nicotine vaccines do not induce compensatory smoking or affect withdrawal symptoms. No nicotine vaccines are currently licensed for use in any country but a number are under development.



  • Pregabalin for chronic prostatitis
    1 Studie (n= 324)
    There is evidence from one RCT that pregabalin does not improve CP/CPPS symptoms and causes adverse effects in a large percentage of men. However, research is required to assess further whether pregabalin has a role in patients with CP/CPPS for symptom control.



  • Interventions for reducing wrong-site surgery and invasive procedures
    1 Studie
    The findings of this review identified one ITS study for a non-medical procedure conducted in a dental outpatient setting. The study suggested that the use of a specific educational intervention, in the above-mentioned context, which targets junior dental staff using a training session that included cases of wrong-site surgery, presentation of clinical guidelines and feedback by the instructor, was associated with a reduction in the incidence of wrong-site tooth extractions. Given the nature of the intervention in a very specific population, application of these results to a broader population undergoing other forms of surgery or invasive procedures should be undertaken cautiously.
  • Irrigants for non-surgical root canal treatment in mature permanent teeth
    11 Studien (n= 851)
    Although root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine appear to be effective at reducing bacterial cultures when compared to saline, most of the studies included in this review failed to adequately report these clinically important and potentially patient-relevant outcomes. There is currently insufficient reliable evidence showing the superiority of any one individual irrigant. The strength and reliability of the supporting evidence was variable and clinicians should be aware that changes in bacterial counts or pain in the early postoperative period may not be accurate indicators of long-term success. Future trials should report both clinician-relevant and patient-preferred outcomes at clearly defined perioperative, as well as long-term, time points.
  • Systemic interventions for recurrent aphthous stomatitis (mouth ulcers)
    25 Studien
    No single treatment was found to be effective and therefore the results remain inconclusive in regard to the best systemic intervention for RAS. This is likely to reflect the poor methodological rigour of trials, and lack of studies for certain drugs, rather than the true effect of the intervention. It is also recognised that in clinical practice, individual drugs appear to work for individual patients and so the interventions are likely to be complex in nature. In addition, it is acknowledged that systemic interventions are often reserved for those patients who have been unresponsive to topical treatments, and therefore may represent a select group of patients.


  • Electric fans for reducing adverse health impacts in heatwaves
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    The evidence we identified does not resolve uncertainties about the health effects of electric fans during heatwaves. Therefore, this review does not support or refute the use of electric fans during a heatwave. People making decisions about electric fans should consider the current state of the evidence base, and they might also wish to make themselves aware of local policy or guidelines when making a choice about whether or not to use or supply electric fans.

  • Mobile phone messaging reminders for attendance at healthcare appointments
    4 Studien (n= 3547)
    There is moderate quality evidence that mobile phone text message reminders are more effective than no reminders, and low quality evidence that text message reminders with postal reminders are more effective than postal reminders alone. Further, according to the moderate quality evidence we found, mobile phone text message reminders are as effective as phone call reminders. Overall, there is limited evidence on the effects of mobile phone text message reminders for appointment attendance, and further high-quality research is required to draw more robust conclusions.
  • Interactive computer-based interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance in overweight or obese people
    14 Studien (n= 2537)
    Compared to no intervention or minimal interventions (pamphlets, usual care), interactive computer-based interventions are an effective intervention for weight loss and weight maintenance. Compared to in-person interventions, interactive computer-based interventions result in smaller weight losses and lower levels of weight maintenance. The amount of additional weight loss, however, is relatively small and of brief duration, making the clinical significance of these differences unclear.
  • Phlebotonics for haemorrhoids
    20 Studien (n= 2344)
    The evidence suggests that there is a potential benefit in using phlebotonics in treating haemorrhoidal disease as well as a benefit in alleviating post-haemorrhoidectomy symptoms. Outcomes such as bleeding and overall symptom improvement show a statistically significant beneficial effect and there were few concerns regarding their overall safety from the evidence presented in the clinical trials.
    However methodological limitations were encountered. In order to enhance our conclusion further, more robust clinical trials which take into account these limitations will need to be performed in the future.
  • Allergen-specific oral immunotherapy for peanut allergy
    1 Studie
    The one small RCT we found showed that allergen-specific peanut OIT can result in desensitisation in children, and that this is associated with evidence of underlying immune-modulation. However, this treatment approach was associated with a substantial risk of adverse events, although the majority of these were mild.  In view of the risk of adverse events and the lack of evidence of long-term benefits, allergen-specific peanut OIT cannot currently be recommended as a treatment for the management of patients with IgE-mediated peanut allergy.
  • Chlorambucil for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis
    1 Studie
    There is not sufficient evidence to support or reject the use of chlorambucil for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Chlorambucil may show benefit in some unvalidated surrogate outcome measures (for example, serum bilirubin and immunoglobulin M levels). Chlorambucil is, however, connected with a number of adverse events. Bone marrow suppression should be noted in particular. Further randomised clinical trials are necessary to assess the benefits and harms of chlorambucil in this indication.
  • Email for clinical communication between healthcare professionals
    1 Studie
    As only one study was identified for inclusion, the results are inadequate to inform clinical practice in regard to the use of email for clinical communication between healthcare professionals. Future research needs to use high-quality study designs that take advantage of the most recent developments in information technology, with consideration of the complexity of email as an intervention, and costs.
  • Interventions for mycosis fungoides
    14 Studien (n= 675)
    This review identified trial evidence for a range of different topical and systemic interventions for mycosis fungoides. Because of substantial heterogeneity in design, small sample sizes, and low methodological quality, the comparative safety and efficacy of these interventions cannot be established on the basis of the included RCTs. Taking into account the possible serious adverse effects and the limited availability of efficacy data, topical and skin-directed treatments are recommended first, especially in the early stages of disease. More aggressive therapeutic regimens may show improvement or clearance of lesions, but they also result in more adverse effects; therefore, they are to be considered with caution. Larger studies with comparable, clearly-defined end points for all stages of mycosis fungoides, and a focus on safety, quality of life, and duration of remission as part of the outcome measures, are necessary.
  • Interventions to improve the use of systematic reviews in decision-making by health system managers, policy makers and clinicians
    8 Studien
    Mass mailing a printed bulletin which summarises systematic review evidence may improve evidence-based practice when there is a single clear message, if the change is relatively simple to accomplish, and there is a growing awareness by users of the evidence that a change in practice is required. If the intention is to develop awareness and knowledge of systematic review evidence, and the skills for implementing this evidence, a multifaceted intervention that addresses each of these aims may be required, though there is insufficient evidence to support this approach.



Zuletzt verändert: 11.10.2012