Die 5 Minuten Evidenz - Cochrane Ausgabe 4/2012

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Ausgabe 4/2012 der Cochrane Library


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Aktivität Atmung Augen
Chirurgie Frauen Haut
Herz, Kreislauf, CVD Infektion Kinder
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Zahn Diverses


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  • Preoperative physical therapy for elective cardiac surgery patients
    8 Studien (n= 856)
    Evidence derived from small trials suggests that preoperative physical therapy reduces postoperative pulmonary complications (atelectasis and pneumonia) and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. There is a lack of evidence that preoperative physical therapy reduces postoperative pneumothorax, prolonged mechanical ventilation or all-cause deaths.


  • Breathing exercises for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    16 Studien (n= 1233)
    Breathing exercises over four to 15 weeks improve functional exercise capacity in people with COPD compared to no intervention; however, there are no consistent effects on dyspnoea or health-related quality of life. Outcomes were similar across all the breathing exercises examined. Treatment effects for patient-reported outcomes may have been overestimated owing to lack of blinding. Breathing exercises may be useful to improve exercise tolerance in selected individuals with COPD who are unable to undertake exercise training; however, these data do not suggest a widespread role for breathing exercises in the comprehensive management of people with COPD.
  • Topical steroids for nasal polyps
    40 Studien (n= 3624)
    Topical corticosteroids are a beneficial treatment for CRSwNP and the adverse effects are minor, with benefits outweighing the risks. They improve symptoms, reduce polyp size and prevent polyp recurrence after surgery. Patients having sinus surgery may have a greater response to topical corticosteroids but further research is required.
  • Addition of intravenous beta2‐agonists to inhaled beta2‐agonists for acute asthma
    3 Studien (n= 104)
    There is very limited evidence from one study (Browne 1997) to support the use of IV beta2-agonists in children with severe acute asthma with respect to shorter recovery time, and similarly there is limited evidence (again from one study Browne 1997) suggesting benefit with regard to pulmonary index scores; however this advantage needs to be considered carefully in relation to the increased side effects associated with IV beta2-agonists. We identified no significant benefits for adults with severe acute asthma. Until more, adequately powered, high quality clinical trials in this area are conducted it is not possible to form a robust evaluation of the addition of IV beta2-agonists in children or adults with severe acute asthma.
  • Intravenous beta2‐agonists versus intravenous aminophylline for acute asthma
    11 Studien (n= 350)
    In the included RCTs there was no consistent evidence favouring either IV beta2-agonists or IV aminophylline for patients with acute asthma. The opportunity to draw clear conclusions is limited by the heterogeneity of outcomes evaluated and the small sample sizes in the included studies. It is recommended that these data should be viewed carefully alongside the conclusions from separate Cochrane reviews comparing IV beta2-agonists plus inhaled beta2-agonists versus inhaled beta2-agonists alone and IV aminophylline plus inhaled beta2-agonists versus inhaled beta2-agonists alone.
  • Tiotropium versus long-acting beta-agonists for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    7 Studien (n= 12.223)
    In people with COPD, the evidence is equivocal as to whether or not tiotropium offers greater benefit than LABAs in improving quality of life; however, this is complicated by differences in effect among the LABA types. Tiotropium was more effective than LABAs as a group in preventing COPD exacerbations and disease-related hospitalisations, although there were no statistical differences between groups in overall hospitalisation rates or mortality during the study periods. There were fewer serious adverse events and study withdrawals recorded with tiotropium compared with LABAs. Symptom improvement and changes in lung function were similar between the treatment groups. Given the small number of studies to date, with high levels of heterogeneity among them, one approach may be to give a COPD patient a substantial trial of tiotropium, followed by a LABA (or vice versa), then to continue prescribing the long-acting bronchodilator that the patient prefers.



  • Perioperative increase in global blood flow to explicit defined goals and outcomes following surgery
    31 Studien (n= 5292)
    It remains uncertain whether increasing blood flow using fluids, with or without inotropes or vasoactive drugs, reduces mortality in adults undergoing surgery. The primary analysis in this review (mortality at longest follow-up) showed no difference between the intervention and control, but this result was sensitive to the method of analysis, the withdrawal of studies with methodological limitations, and is dominated by a single large RCT. Overall, for every 100 patients in whom blood flow is increased perioperatively to defined goals, one can expect 13 in 100 patients (from 40/100 to 27/100) to avoid a complication, 2/100 to avoid renal impairment (from 8/100 to 6/100), 5/100 to avoid respiratory failure (from 10/100 to 5/100), and 4/100 to avoid postoperative wound infection (from 10/100 to 6/100). On average, patients receiving the intervention stay in hospital one day less. It is unlikely that the intervention causes harm. The balance of current evidence does not support widespread implementation of this approach to reduce mortality but does suggest that complications and duration of hospital stay are reduced.
  • Pre-operative Nutrition Support in Patients Undergoing Gastrointestinal Surgery
    13 Studien
    There have been significant benefits demonstrated with pre-operative administration of IE nutrition in some high quality trials. However, bias was identified which may limit the generalizability of these results to all GI surgical candidates and the data needs to be placed in context with other recent innovations in surgical management (eg-ERAS). Some unwanted effects have also been reported with components of IE nutrition in critical care patients and it is unknown whether there would be detrimental effects by administering IE nutrition to patients who could require critical care support after their surgery. The studies evaluating PN demonstrated that the provision of PN to predominantly malnourished surgical candidates reduced post-operative complications; however, these data may not be applicable to current clinical practice, not least because they have involved a high degree of 'hyperalimentation'. Trials evaluating enteral or oral nutrition were inconclusive and further studies are required to select GI surgical patients for these nutritional interventions.
  • Double-bundle versus single-bundle reconstruction for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in adults
    17 Studien (n= 1433)
    There is insufficient evidence to determine the relative effectiveness of double-bundle and single-bundle reconstruction for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in adults, although there is limited evidence that double-bundle ACL reconstruction has some superior results in objective measurements of knee stability and protection against repeat ACL rupture or a new meniscal injury. High quality, large and appropriately reported randomised controlled trials of double-bundle versus single-bundle reconstruction for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in adults appear justified.
  • Perioperative buffered versus non‐buffered fluid administration for surgery in adults
    13 Studien (n= 706)
    The administration of buffered fluids to adult patients during surgery is equally safe and effective as the administration of non-buffered saline-based fluids. The use of buffered fluids is associated with less metabolic derangement, in particular hyperchloraemia and metabolic acidosis. Larger studies are needed to assess robust outcomes such as mortality.


  • Chemotherapy for metastatic and recurrent cervical cancer
    26 Studien
    Combination cisplatin-based chemotherapy could be a viable option for patients of good performance status with recurrent/metastatic cervical cancer, but further trials that report adequate survival and QoL data are sought. Response rates and improvements in survival are low. Cisplatin-based combinations have significant toxicity. Outcomes are poor and novel cytotoxic/biological agents and optimal scheduling need further investigation. Future trials need to stratify for and perform planned subgroup analysis with respect to previous treatment and site of recurrence.
  • Cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors for preventing preterm labour
    1 Studie (n= 98)
    There was very little evidence about using COX inhibitors for preventing preterm labour. There are inadequate data to make any recommendation about using COX inhibitor in practice to prevent preterm labour. Future research should include follow-up of the babies to examine the short-term and long-term effects of COX inhibitors.
  • Pain relief for women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia undergoing colposcopy treatment
    17 Studien (n= 1567)
    Based on two small trials, there was no significant difference in pain relief in women receiving oral analgesics compared with placebo or no treatment (129 women; MD -3.51; 95% CI -10.03 to 3.01). We consider this evidence to be of a low to moderate quality. In routine clinical practice, intracervical injection of local anaesthetic with a vasoconstrictor (lignocaine plus adrenaline or prilocaine plus felypressin) appears to be the optimum analgesia for treatment. However, further high-quality, adequately powered trials should be undertaken in order to provide the data necessary to estimate the efficacy of oral analgesics, the optimal route of administration and dose of local anaesthetics.
  • Postoperative tamoxifen for ductal carcinoma in situ
    2 Studien (n= 3375)
    While tamoxifen after local excision for DCIS (with or without adjuvant radiotherapy) reduced the risk of recurrent DCIS (in the ipsi- and contralateral breast), it did not reduce the risk of overall mortality.
  • Prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the risk of urinary tract infections after urodynamic studies
    9 Studien (n =973)
    Prophylactic antibiotics did reduce the risk of bacteriuria after urodynamic studies but there was not enough evidence to suggest that this effect reduced symptomatic urinary tract infections. There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of fever, dysuria or adverse reactions. Potential benefits have to be weighed against clinical and financial implications, and the risk of adverse effects.
  • Prophylactic chemotherapy for hydatidiform mole to prevent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
    3 Studien 8n= 613)
    P-Chem may reduce the risk of progression to GTN in women with CMs who are at a high risk of malignant transformation; however, current evidence in favour of P-Chem is limited by the poor methodological quality and small size of the included studies. As P-Chem may increase drug resistance, delay treatment of GTN and expose women unnecessarily to toxic side effects, this practice cannot currently be recommended.
  • Clomiphene citrate in combination with gonadotropins for controlled ovarian stimulation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization
    12 Studien (n= 2536)
    There was no evidence to indicate that clomiphene with gonadotropins (with or without GnRH antagonist) differed significantly from gonadotropins in GnRH agonist protocols for women undergoing IVF treatment, in terms of live births or pregnancy rates. Meanwhile, use of clomiphene led to a reduction in the incidence of OHSS. However, these results were based on data from a small number of underpowered randomised trials with few participants. Hence there was insufficient evidence to recommend use of clomiphene citrate in routine IVF practice. Larger trials with adequate power are required.
  • Hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth
    7 Studien (n= 1213)
    There are still only a small number of studies assessing the use of hypnosis for labour and childbirth. Although the intervention shows some promise, further research is needed before recommendations can be made regarding its clinical usefulness for pain management in maternity care.
  • Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy
    1 Studie (n= 200)
    A daily dose of nitrofurantoin and close surveillance has not been shown to prevent RUTI compared with close surveillance alone. A significant reduction of ASB was found in women with a high clinic attendance rate and who received nitrofurantoin and close surveillance. There was limited reporting of both primary and secondary outcomes for both women and infants. No conclusions can be drawn regarding the optimal intervention to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant. Randomised controlled trials comparing different pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are necessary to investigate potentially effective interventions to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant.
  • Group versus conventional antenatal care for women
    2 Studien (n= 1369)
    The available evidence suggests that group antenatal care is positively viewed by women with no adverse outcomes for themselves or their babies. This review is limited owing to the small number of studies/women and the majority of the analyses are based on a single study. More research is required to determine if group antenatal care is associated with significant benefits.
  • Chemotherapy for resistant or recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    RCTs in GTN are scarce owing to the low prevalence of this disease and its highly chemosensitive nature. As chemotherapeutic agents may be associated with substantial side effects, the ideal treatment should achieve maximum efficacy with minimal side effects. For methotrexate-resistant or recurrent low-risk GTN, a common practice is to use sequential five-day dactinomycin, followed by MAC (methotrexate, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide) or EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide, vinblastine) if further salvage therapy is required.
  • Internal versus external tocodynamometry during induced or augmented labour
    3 Studien (n= 194)
    This review found no differences between the two types of monitoring (internal or external tocodynamometry) for any of the maternal or neonatal outcomes. Given that this review is based on three studies (N = 1945 women) of moderate quality, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of one form of tocodynamometry over another for women where intravenous oxytocin was administered for induction or augmentation of labour.)
  • Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for follow‐up of women treated for breast cancer
    2 Studien (n= 262)
    There was 'low level' evidence that multidisciplinary rehabilitation can improve the outcomes of people with breast cancer in terms of functional ability, psychosocial adjustment and participation in social activities. There was no evidence available on functional gain at the level of activity. This review highlights the limitations of RCTs in rehabilitation settings and the need for high-quality trial-based research in this area. Regular evaluation and assessment of breast cancer survivors for rehabilitation is recommended.

Herz, Kreislauf, CVD

  • Antioxidants for chronic kidney disease
    10 Studien (n= 1979)
    Although antioxidant therapy does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause death or major cardiovascular events in people with CKD, it is possible that some benefit may be present, particularly in those on dialysis. However, the small size and generally suboptimal quality of the included studies highlighted the need for sufficiently powered studies to confirm this possibility. Current evidence suggests that antioxidant therapy in predialysis CKD patients may prevent progression to ESKD; this finding was however based on a very small number of events. Further studies with longer follow-up are needed for confirmation. Appropriately powered studies are needed to reliably assess the effects of antioxidant therapy in people with CKD.
  • Lipid lowering efficacy of atorvastatin
    254 Studien (n= 33.505)
    Blood total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride lowering effect of atorvastatin was dependent on dose. Log dose-response data was linear over the commonly prescribed dose range. Manufacturer-recommended atorvastatin doses of 10 to 80 mg/day resulted in 36% to 53% decreases of LDL-cholesterol. The review did not provide a good estimate of the incidence of harms associated with atorvastatin because of the short duration of the trials and the lack of reporting of adverse effects in 37% of the placebo-controlled trials.
  • Optimal loading dose of warfarin for the initiation of oral anticoagulation
    12 Studien
    The studies in this review compared loading doses in several different situations. There is still considerable uncertainty between the use of a 5 mg and a 10 mg loading dose for the initiation of warfarin. In the elderly, there is some evidence that lower initiation doses or age adjusted doses are more appropriate, leading to fewer high INRs. However, there is insufficient evidence to warrant genotype guided initiation.
  • Colesevelam for type 2 diabetes mellitus
    6 Studien (n= 1450)
    Colesevelam added on to antidiabetic agents showed significant effects on glycaemic control. However, there is a limited number of studies with the different colesevelam/antidiabetic agent combinations. More information on the benefit-risk ratio of colesevelam treatment is necessary to assess the long-term effects, particularly in the management of cardiovascular risks as well as the reduction in micro- and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, long-term data on health-related quality of life and all-cause mortality also need to be investigated.


  • Antibiotics for clinically diagnosed acute rhinosinusitis in adults
    10 Studien (n= 2450)
    The potential benefit of antibiotics in the treatment of clinically diagnosed acute rhinosinusitis needs to be seen in the context of a high prevalence of adverse events. Taking into account antibiotic resistance and the very low incidence of serious complications, we conclude that there is no place for antibiotics for the patient with clinically diagnosed, uncomplicated acute rhinosinusitis. This review cannot make recommendations for children, patients with a suppressed immune system and patients with severe disease, as these populations were not included in the available trials.
  • Antibiotics for treating human brucellosis
    25 Studien, davon 3 verblindet
    Doxycycline (six weeks) plus streptomycin (two or three weeks) regimen is more effective regimen than doxycycline plus rifampicin (six weeks) regimen. Since it needs daily intramuscular (IM) injection, access to care and cost are important factors in deciding between two choices. Quinolone plus rifampicin (six weeks) regimen is slightly better tolerated than doxycycline plus rifampicin, and low quality evidence did not show any difference in overall effectiveness.
  • Autologous platelet-rich plasma for treating chronic wounds
    9 Studien (n= 325)
    There is currently no evidence to suggest that autologous PRP is of value for treating chronic wounds. However, current evidence is based on a small number of RCTs, most of which are either at high or unclear risk of bias. Well-designed and adequately powered clinical trials are needed.
  • Clinical symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia
    7 Studien (n= 1491)
    M. pneumoniae cannot be reliably diagnosed in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia based on clinical symptoms and signs. Although the absence of wheeze is a statistically significant diagnostic indicator, it does not have sufficient diagnostic value to guide empirical macrolide treatment. Data from two studies suggest that the presence of chest pain more than doubles the probability of M. pneumoniae. However, further research is needed to substantiate this finding. More high quality large-scale studies in primary care settings are needed to help develop prediction rules based on epidemiological data as well as clinical and baseline patient characteristics.
  • Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat
    8 Studien (n= 743)
    Oral or intramuscular corticosteroids, in addition to antibiotics, increase the likelihood of both resolution and improvement of pain in participants with sore throat. Further trials assessing corticosteroids in the absence of antibiotics and in children are warranted.
  • Corticosteroids for parasitic eosinophilic meningitis
    1 Studie (n= 110)
    Corticosteroids significantly help relieve headache in patients with eosinophilic meningitis. However, there is only one RCT supporting this benefit and this trial did not clearly mention allocation concealment and stratification. Future well-designed RCTs may be necessary.
  • Male involvement for increasing the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes
    1 Studie
    We found only one eligible study that assessed the effectiveness of male involvement in improving women’s uptake of PMTCT services, which only focused on one part of the perinatal PMTCT cascade. We urgently need more rigorously designed studies assessing the impact of male engagement interventions on women’s uptake of PMTCT services to know if this intervention can contribute to improve uptake of PMTCT services and reduce vertical transmission of HIV in children.
  • Vaccines for preventing herpes zoster in older adults
    8 Studien (n= 52.269)
    Herpes zoster vaccine is effective in preventing herpes zoster disease. Although vaccine benefits are larger in the younger age group (60 to 69 years), this is also the age group with more adverse events. In general, zoster vaccine is well tolerated; it produces few systemic adverse events and injection site adverse effects of mild to moderate intensity.
  • Antibiotics for uncomplicated diverticulitis
    3 Studien
    The newest evidence from one RCT says there is no significant difference between antibiotics versus no antibiotics in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticulitis. Previous RCTs have only suggested a non-inferiority between different antibiotic regimes and treatment lengths. This new evidence needs confirmation from more RCTs before it can be implicated safely in clinical guidelines. Ongoing RCTs will be published in the years to come and more are needed. The role of antibiotics in the treatment of complicated diverticulitis has not been investigated yet.
  • Rectal 5-aminosalicylic acid for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis
    9 Studien (n= 984)
    The limited data available suggest that rectal 5-ASA is effective and safe for maintenance of remission of mild to moderately active distal UC. Well designed randomized trials are needed to establish the optimal dosing regimen for rectal 5-ASA, to compare rectal 5-ASA with rectal corticosteroids and to identify subgroups of patients who are more or less responsive to specific rectal 5-ASA regimens. The combination of oral and rectal 5-ASA appears to be more effective than either oral or rectal monotherapy for induction of remission. The efficacy of combination therapy for maintenance of remission has not been assessed and could be evaluated in future trials.
  • Drugs for treating giardiasis
    19 Studien (n= 1817)
    This review did not find any evidence for the effectiveness of different antimicrobial treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis. Until such evidence becomes available, it is reasonable for clinicians to follow the American Thoracic Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nodular or bronchiectatic pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium abscessus in patients with cystic fibrosis.
  • Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis
    1 ongoing Studie
    This review did not find any evidence for the effectiveness of different antimicrobial treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis. Until such evidence becomes available, it is reasonable for clinicians to follow the American Thoracic Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nodular or bronchiectatic pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium abscessus in patients with cystic fibrosis.


  • Nebulised surfactant in preterm infants with or at risk of respiratory distress syndrome
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There are insufficient data to support or refute the use of nebulised surfactant in clinical practice. Adequately powered trials are required to determine the effect of nebulised surfactant administration for prevention or early treatment of RDS in preterm infants. Nebulised surfactant administration should be limited to clinical trials.
  • Safety of regular formoterol or salmeterol in children with asthma: an overview of Cochrane reviews
    6 Cochrane Reviews
    We do not know if regular combination therapy with formoterol or salmeterol in children alters the risk of dying from asthma.Regular combination therapy is likely to be less risky than monotherapy in children with asthma, but we cannot say that combination therapy is risk free. There are probably an additional three children per 1000 who suffer a non-fatal serious adverse event on combination therapy in comparison to ICS over three months. This is currently our best estimate of the risk of using LABA combination therapy in children and has to be balanced against the symptomatic benefit obtained for each child. We await the results of large on-going surveillance studies to further clarify the risks of combination therapy in children and adolescents with asthma. The relative safety of formoterol in comparison to salmeterol remains unclear, even when all currently available direct and indirect trial evidence is combined.
  • Interventions for preventing relapse and recurrence of a depressive disorder in children and adolescents
    9 Studien (n= 882)
    Currently, there is little evidence to conclude which type of treatment approach is most effective in preventing relapse or recurrence of depressive episodes in children and adolescents. Limited trials found that antidepressant medication reduces the chance of relapse-recurrence in the future, however, there is considerable diversity in the design of trials, making it difficult to compare outcomes across studies. Some of the research involving psychological therapies is encouraging, however at present more trials with larger sample sizes need to be conducted in order to explore this treatment approach further.
  • Ketamine for management of acute exacerbations of asthma in children
    1 Studie (n= 68)
    The single study on non-intubated children with severe acute asthma did not show significant benefit and does not support the case studies and observational reports showing benefits of ketamine in both non-ventilated and ventilated children. There were no significant side effects of ketamine. We could not find any trials on ventilated children. To prove that ketamine is an effective treatment for acute asthma in children, there is need for sufficiently powered randomised trials of high methodological quality with objective outcome measures of clinical importance. Future trials should also explore different doses of ketamine and its role in children needing ventilation because of severe acute asthma.
  • Nebulised deoxyribonuclease for viral bronchiolitis in children younger than 24 months
    3 Studien (n= 333)
    The results based on the three included studies in this review did not support the use of nebulised rhDNase in children under 24 months of age hospitalised with acute bronchiolitis. In these patients, treatment did not shorten the length of hospitalisation or improve clinical outcomes. It might have a role in severe bronchiolitis complicated by atelectasis, but further clinical studies would need to be performed.
  • Oral immunotherapy for milk allergy
    5 Studien (n= 196)
    Studies to date have involved small numbers of patients and the quality of evidence is generally low. The current evidence shows that MOIT can lead to desensitization in the majority of individuals with IMCMA although the development of long-term tolerance has not been established. A major drawback of MOIT is the frequency of adverse effects, although most are mild and self-limited. The use of parenteral epinephrine is not infrequent. Because there are no standardized protocols, guidelines would be required prior to incorporating desensitization into clinical practice.
  • Push versus gravity for intermittent bolus gavage tube feeding of premature and low birth weight infants
    1 Studie
    There was one small cross-over study that was included in this review. There is insufficient evidence to recommend either method of gavage feeding. A randomised trial is needed to evaluate the benefits and harms of push versus gravity bolus tube feeding in preterm infants. Infants should be stratified by gestational age at birth (above and below 32 weeks) or birth weight (above and below 1500 grams) and respiratory support (ventilated versus non-ventilated) and the sample size should be of sufficient size to evaluate the primary outcomes outlined in this review (time to establish full tube feeds and feeding intolerance).
  • Routine neonatal circumcision for the prevention of urinary tract infections in infancy
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    We were unable to identify any randomised controlled trials on the use of routine neonatal circumcision for prevention of UTI in male infants. Until further evidence becomes available, clinicians should continue to base their decisions on position statements and recommendations and in conjunction with the opinions of the children's parents.
  • Clofibrate in combination with phototherapy for unconjugated neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia
    15 Studien
    There are insufficient data from different countries on the use of clofibrate in combination with phototherapy for hyperbilirubinaemia to make recommendations for practice. There is a need for larger trials to determine how effective clofibrate is in reducing the need for, and duration of, phototherapy in term and preterm infants with hyperbilirubinaemia.
  • Intermittent versus daily inhaled corticosteroids for persistent asthma in children and adults
    6 Studien (n= 1211)
    In children and adults with persistent asthma and in preschool children suspected of persistent asthma, intermittent and daily ICS strategies did not significantly differ in the use of rescue oral corticosteroids and the rate of severe adverse health events, neither did they reach equivalence. Daily ICS was superior to intermittent ICS in several indicators of lung function, airway inflammation, asthma control and reliever use. Both treatments appeared safe, but a modest growth suppression was associated with daily, compared to intermittent, inhaled budesonide and beclomethasone. The clinician should carefully weigh the potential benefits and harm of each treatment option, taking into account the unknown long-term (> one year) impact of intermittent therapy on lung growth and lung function decline.
  • Manipulative therapies for infantile colic
    6 Studien (n= 325)
    The studies included in this meta-analysis were generally small and methodologically prone to bias, which makes it impossible to arrive at a definitive conclusion about the effectiveness of manipulative therapies for infantile colic.
  • Phonics training for English‐speaking poor readers
    11 Studien (n= 736)
    Phonics training appears to be effective for improving some reading skills. Specifically, statistically significant effects were found for nonword reading accuracy (large effect), word reading accuracy (moderate effect), and letter-sound knowledge (small-to-moderate effect). For several other outcomes, there were small or moderate effect sizes that did not reach statistical significance but may be meaningful: word reading fluency, spelling, phonological output, and reading comprehension. The effect for nonword reading fluency, which was measured in only one study, was in a negative direction, but this was not statistically significant.
  • Sweet‐tasting solutions for needle‐related procedural pain in infants one month to one year of age
    14 Studien (n= 1551)
  • There is insufficient evidence to confidently judge the effectiveness of sweet-tasting solutions in reducing needle-related pain in infants (one month to 12 months of age). The treatments do, however, appear promising. Data from a series of individual trials are promising, as are the results from a subset meta-analysis of studies measuring duration of crying. Further well controlled RCTs are warranted in this population to determine the optimal concentration, volume, method of administration, and possible adverse effects.


  • Primary prophylactic colony-stimulating factors for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients
    8 Studien (n= 2156)
    In patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy, CSFs have shown evidence of benefit in the prevention of FN. There is evidence, though less reliable, of a decrease of all-cause mortality during chemotherapy and a reduced need for hospital care. No reliable evidence was found for a reduction of infection-related mortality, a higher dose intensity of chemotherapy with CSFs or diminished rates of severe neutropenia and infections. The majority of adverse events reported from CSF use were bone pain and injection-site reactions but no conclusions could be drawn regarding late-term side effects.
  • Rituximab, ofatumumab and other monoclonal anti-CD20 antibodies for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
    7 Studien (n= 1763)
    This meta-analysis showed that patients receiving chemotherapy plus rituximab benefit in terms of OS as well as PFS compared to those with chemotherapy alone. Therefore, it supports the recommendation of rituximab in combination with FluC as an option for the first-line treatment as well as for the people with relapsed or refractory CLL. The available evidence regarding the other assessed comparisons was not sufficient to deduct final conclusions.
  • Role of chemotherapy additional to high-dose methotrexate for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL)
    1 Studie (n= 79)
    Owing to the small number of included trials and patients, the findings in this review remain uncertain. In summary, the presently available evidence (one small trial) showed a benefit in terms of PFS, ORR and CRR but no statistically significant difference regarding OS for patients with PCNSL treated with HD-MTX plus cytarabine compared to HD-MTX alone. However, the risk of severe infections and toxicity was significantly higher in patients treated with combined chemotherapy. More RCTs with additional chemotherapy to HD-MTX therapy with higher numbers of patients and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm the results of this review and determine whether the PFS benefit will translate into an OS advantage. At least the one included study shows that RCTs of moderate quality and with valuable outcomes for this malignant disease are feasible.
  • Omentoplasty for esophagogastrostomy after esophagectomy
    2 Studien (n= 449)
    Omentoplasty may provide an additional benefit to decrease the incidence of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy for esophageal cancer patients without increasing or decreasing other complications, especially for those patients treated with THE. Further randomized controlled trials are still needed to investigate the influences of omentoplasty in different operation procedures of esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy on the incidence of anastomotic leakage, anastomotic stricture, long-term survival rate and quality of life after esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy.
  • Psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life and emotional wellbeing for recently diagnosed cancer patients
    30 Studien
    The significant variation that was observed across participants, mode of delivery, discipline of 'trained helper' and intervention content makes it difficult to arrive at a firm conclusion regarding the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. It can be tentatively concluded that nurse-delivered interventions comprising information combined with supportive attention may have a beneficial impact on mood in an undifferentiated population of newly diagnosed cancer patients.
  • Interventions for actinic keratoses
    83 Studien (n= 10.036)
    For individual lesions, photodynamic therapy appears more effective and has a better cosmetic outcome than cryotherapy. For field-directed treatments, diclofenac, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate had similar efficacy, but their associated adverse events and cosmetic outcomes are different. More direct comparisons between these treatments are needed to determine the best therapeutic approach.
  • Interventions for anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia
    1 Studie (n= 53)
    The included trial failed to demonstrate any statistically significant efficacy of imiquimod in the management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The absence of reliable evidence for any of the interventions used in AIN precludes any definitive guidance or recommendations for clinical practice. Prospective cohort studies and retrospective studies have not been included in this review as they are considered to provide lower quality evidence. Well designed RCTs are needed.
  • Screening for oesophageal cancer
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    There were no RCTs that determined the efficacy of screening for oesophageal cancer. Non-RCTs showed a high incidence and the reported better survival after screening could be caused by selection bias, lead-time and length-time biases. RCTs are needed to determine the efficacy of screening for oesophageal cancer.
  • Interventions for anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia
    1 Studie (n= 53)
    The included trial failed to demonstrate any statistically significant efficacy of imiquimod in the management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The absence of reliable evidence for any of the interventions used in AIN precludes any definitive guidance or recommendations for clinical practice. Prospective cohort studies and retrospective studies have not been included in this review as they are considered to provide lower quality evidence. Well designed RCTs are needed.


  • Collaborative care for depression and anxiety problems
    97 Studien (n = 24.308)
    Collaborative care is associated with significant improvement in depression and anxiety outcomes compared with usual care, and represents a useful addition to clinical pathways for adult patients with depression and anxiety.

  • Duloxetine versus other anti-depressive agents for depression
    16 Studien (n = 5735)
    Duloxetine did not seem to provide a significant advantage in efficacy over other antidepressive agents for the acute-phase treatment of major depression. No differences in terms of efficacy were found, even though duloxetine was worse than some SSRIs (most of all, escitalopram) and newer antidepressants (like venlafaxine) in terms of acceptability and tolerability. Unfortunately, we only found evidence comparing duloxetine with a handful of other active antidepressive agents and only a few trials per comparison were found (in some cases we retrieved just one trial). This limited the power of the review to detect moderate, but clinically meaningful differences between the drugs. As many statistical tests have been used in the review, the findings from this review are better thought of as hypothesis forming rather than hypothesis testing and it would be very comforting to see the conclusions replicated in future trials. Most of included studies were sponsored by the drug industry manufacturing duloxetine. As for all other new investigational compounds, the potential for overestimation of treatment effect due to sponsorship bias should be borne in mind. In the present review no trials reported economic outcomes. Given that several SSRIs and the great majority of antidepressants are now available as generic formulation (only escitalopram, desvenlafaxine and duloxetine are still on patent), more comprehensive economic estimates of antidepressant treatment effect should be considered to better inform healthcare policy.
  • Information and communication technology in patient education and support for people with schizophrenia
    6 Studien (n= 1063)
    Using ICT to deliver psychoeducational interventions has no clear effects compared with standard care, other methods of delivering psychoeducation and support, or both. Researchers used a variety of methods of delivery and outcomes, and studies were few and underpowered. ICT remains a promising method of delivering psychoeducation; the equivocal findings of this review should not postpone high-quality research in this area.

  • Interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment

    3 Studien
    The review demonstrates that there is currently insufficient high-quality evidence from randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials to provide conclusive results about the effectiveness of any particular type of oral-motor therapy for children with neurological impairment. There is an urgent need for larger-scale (appropriately statistically powered), randomised trials to evaluate the efficacy of interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia.

  • Pregabalin monotherapy for epilepsy
    2 Studien (n= 753)
    Pregabalin seems to have similar tolerability but inferior efficacy in comparison to lamotrigine for newly diagnosed partial seizures. However, considering the limitations in the study design (such as the short-term follow-up and the low initial target dose selection), the results should be interpreted with caution. The available data were too limited to draw any conclusions between pregabalin and gabapentin. The result indicated that the treatment effects were influenced by the study regions. The clinical disadvantage of pregabalin was more prominent in Asia when compared with lamotrigine. We should determine whether pregabalin has ethnic differences in the treatment of epilepsy in the future. This review does not inform any treatment policy for patients with generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. Further long-term trials are needed to investigate the genuine effectiveness of pregabalin as monotherapy.
  • Continuation and maintenance treatments for depression in older people
    7 Studien (n= 803)
    The long-term benefits of continuing antidepressant medication in the prevention of recurrence of depression in older people are not clear and no firm treatment recommendations can be made on the basis of this review. Continuing antidepressant medication for 12 months appears to be helpful but this is based on only three small studies with relatively few participants using differing classes of antidepressants in clinically heterogeneous populations. Comparisons at other time points did not reach statistical significance. Data on psychological therapies and combined treatments are too limited to draw any conclusions.
  • Haloperidol for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation (rapid tranquillisation)
    32 Studien
    If no other alternative exists, sole use of intramuscular haloperidol could be life-saving. Where additional drugs to offset the adverse effects are available, sole use of haloperidol for the extreme emergency, in situations of coercion, could be considered unethical. Addition of the sedating promethazine has support from better-grade evidence from within randomised trials. Use of an alternative antipsychotic drug is only partially supported by fragmented and poor-grade evidence. Evidence for use of newer generation antipsychotic alternatives is no stronger than that for older drugs. Adding a benzodiazepine to haloperidol does not have strong evidence of benefit and carries a risk of additional harm.
    After six decades of use for emergency rapid tranquillisation, this is still an area in need of good independent trials relevant to real world practice.
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for stroke recovery
    52 Studien (n= 4059)
    SSRIs appeared to improve dependence, disability, neurological impairment, anxiety and depression after stroke, but there was heterogeneity between trials and methodological limitations in a substantial proportion of the trials. Large, well-designed trials are now needed to determine whether SSRIs should be given routinely to patients with stroke.
  • Psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling
    14 Studien (n= 1245)
    This review supports the efficacy of CBT in reducing gambling behaviour and other symptoms of pathological and problem gambling immediately following therapy. However, the durability of therapeutic gain is unknown. There is preliminary evidence for some benefits from motivational interviewing therapy in terms of reduced gambling behaviour, although not necessarily other symptoms of pathological and problem gambling. However, the findings are based on few studies and additional research is needed to inform conclusions. There is also evidence suggestive of some possible benefit from integrative therapies, and other psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling. However, there are too few studies and evidence is insufficient to evaluate these therapies. The majority of studies in this review varied in risk of bias, and much of the evidence comes from studies with multiple limitations. The current data may thus reflect overestimates of treatment efficacy.
  • Amitriptyline for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults
    21 Studien (n= 1437)
    Amitriptyline has been a first-line treatment for neuropathic pain for many years. The fact that there is no supportive unbiased evidence for a beneficial effect is disappointing, but has to be balanced against decades of successful treatment in many patients with neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia. There is no good evidence of a lack of effect; rather our concern should be of overestimation of treatment effect. Amitriptyline should continue to be used as part of the treatment of neuropathic pain or fibromyalgia, but only a minority of patients will achieve satisfactory pain relief. Limited information suggests that failure with one antidepressant does not mean failure with all.
    It is unlikely that any large randomised trials of amitriptyline will be conducted in specific neuropathic pain conditions or in fibromyalgia to prove efficacy.

  • Amitriptyline versus placebo for major depressive disorder
    39 Studien (n= 3590)
    Amitriptyline is an efficacious antidepressant drug. It is, however, also associated with a number of side effects. Degree of placebo response and severity of depression at baseline may moderate drug-placebo efficacy differences.
  • Behavioural interventions as adjuncts to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation
    38 Studien (n mehr als 15.000)
    Providing behavioural support in person or via telephone for people using pharmacotherapy to stop smoking has a small but important effect. Increasing the amount of behavioural support is likely to increase the chance of success by about 10 to 25%, based on a pooled estimate from 38 trials. A subgroup analysis of a small number of trials suggests the benefit could be a little greater when the contrast is between a no contact control and a behavioural intervention that provides at least four sessions of contact. Subgroup analysis also suggests that there may be a smaller incremental benefit from providing even more intensive support via more or longer sessions over and above some personal contact.
  • Teriflunomide for multiple sclerosisTreatment for paraneoplastic neuropathies
    2 Studien (n= 1204)
    We found low-level evidence for the use of teriflunomide as a disease-modifying therapy for MS, due to the limited quality of the available RCTs. We did not conduct meta-analysis because of the clinical and methodological diversity of the included studies. Short-term teriflunomide, 7 or 14 mg alone or with add-on IFN-β, was safe for patients with relapsing MS. Both teriflunomide 7 and 14 mg alone had potential benefits for patients with relapsing forms of MS. We are waiting for the publication of ongoing trials.
  • Huperzine A for mild cognitive impairment
    Keine geeigneten Studien
    The currently available evidence is insufficient to assess the potential for huperzine A in the treatment of MCI. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trials are needed.
  • Interventions to facilitate return to work in adults with adjustment disorders
    9 Studien (n= 1546)
    We found moderate-quality evidence that CBT did not significantly reduce time until partial RTW and low-quality evidence that it did not significantly reduce time to full RTW compared with no treatment. Moderate-quality evidence showed that PST significantly enhanced partial RTW at one-year follow-up compared to non-guideline based care but did not significantly enhance time to full RTW at one-year follow-up. An important limitation was the small number of studies included in the meta-analyses and the small number of participants, which lowered the power of the analyses.
  • Psychological therapies for the treatment of post‐traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents
    14 Studien (n= 758)
    There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapies, particularly CBT, for treating PTSD in children and adolescents for up to a month following treatment. At this stage, there is no clear evidence for the effectiveness of one psychological therapy compared to others. There is also not enough evidence to conclude that children and adolescents with particular types of trauma are more or less likely to respond to psychological therapies than others.
  • Psychosocial interventions for reducing antipsychotic medication in care home residents
    4 Studien
    There is evidence to support the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for reducing antipsychotic medication in care home residents. However, the review was based on a small number of heterogeneous studies with important methodological shortcomings. The most recent and methodologically most rigorous study showed the most pronounced effect.
  • Psychological interventions for adults who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending
    10 Studien (n= 944)
    The inescapable conclusion of this review is the need for further randomised controlled trials. While we recognise that randomisation is considered by some to be unethical or politically unacceptable (both of which are based on the faulty premise that the experimental treatment is superior to the control – this being the point of the trial to begin with), without such evidence, the area will fail to progress. Not only could this result in the continued use of ineffective (and potentially harmful) interventions, but it also means that society is lured into a false sense of security in the belief that once the individual has been treated, their risk of reoffending is reduced. Current available evidence does not support this belief. Future trials should concentrate on minimising risk of bias, maximising quality of reporting and including follow-up for a minimum of five years 'at risk' in the community.
  • Psychological and pharmacological interventions for depression in patients with diabetes mellitus and depression
    19 Studien (n= 1592)
    Psychological and pharmacological interventions have a moderate and clinically significant effect on depression outcomes in diabetes patients. Glycaemic control improved moderately in pharmacological trials, while the evidence is inconclusive for psychological interventions. Adherence to diabetic treatment regimens, diabetes complications, death from any cause, health economics and QoL have not been investigated sufficiently. Overall, the evidence is sparse and inconclusive due to several low-quality trials with substantial risk of bias and the heterogeneity of examined populations and interventions.


  • Local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia for preventing chronic pain after surgery
    23 Studien (n=1090)
    Epidural anaesthesia may reduce the risk of developing chronic pain after thoracotomy in about one patient out of every four patients treated. Paravertebral block may reduce the risk of chronic pain after breast cancer surgery in about one out of every five women treated. Our conclusions are significantly weakened by performance bias, shortcomings in allocation concealment, considerable attrition and incomplete outcome data. We caution that our evidence synthesis is based on only a few, small studies. More studies with high methodological quality, addressing various types of surgery and different age groups, including children, are needed.
  • Methadone for chronic non-cancer pain in adults
    3 Studien (n= 181)
    The three studies provide very limited evidence of the efficacy of methadone for CNCP, and there were too few data for pooled analysis of efficacy or harm, or to have confidence in the results of the individual studies. No conclusions can be made regarding differences in efficacy or safety between methadone and placebo, other opioids, or other treatments.


  • Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation
    41 Studien mit mehr als 20.000 Teilnehmern
    Interventions that combine pharmacotherapy and behavioural support increase smoking cessation success compared to a minimal intervention or usual care. Further trials would be unlikely to change this conclusion. We did not find strong evidence from indirect comparisons that offering more intensive behavioural support was associated with larger treatment effects but this could be because intensive interventions are less likely to be delivered in full.
  • Incentives for preventing smoking in children and adolescents
    7 Studien (n= 6362)
    To date, incentive programmes have not been shown to prevent smoking initiation among youth, although there are relatively few published studies and these are of variable quality. Trials included in this meta-analysis were all studies of the SFC competition, which distributed small to moderately sized prizes to whole classes, usually through a lottery system.
    Future studies might investigate the efficacy of incentives given to individual participants to prevent smoking uptake. Future research should consider the efficacy of incentives on smoking initiation, as well as progression of smoking, evaluate these in varying populations from different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, and describe the intervention components in detail.
  • Behavioural interventions as adjuncts to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation
    38 Studien mit mehr als 20.000 Teilnehmern
    Providing behavioural support in person or via telephone for people using pharmacotherapy to stop smoking has a small but important effect. Increasing the amount of behavioural support is likely to increase the chance of success by about 10 to 25%, based on a pooled estimate from 38 trials. A subgroup analysis of a small number of trials suggests the benefit could be a little greater when the contrast is between a no contact control and a behavioural intervention that provides at least four sessions of contact. Subgroup analysis also suggests that there may be a smaller incremental benefit from providing even more intensive support via more or longer sessions over and above some personal contact.
  • Interventions for recruiting smokers into cessation programmes
    19 Studien (n= 14890)
    The substantial heterogeneity across the included studies restricts our ability to draw firm conclusions about the effectiveness of different recruitment strategies in relation to recruitment of participants into smoking cessation programmes or levels of smoking cessation. The limited evidence, however, suggests that the following elements may improve the recruitment of smokers into cessation programmes: personal, tailored interventions; recruitment methods that are proactive in nature; and more intensive recruitment strategies (i.e., those strategies that require increased contact with potential participants).


  • Antibiotics to prevent complications following tooth extractions
    18 Studien (n =2456)
    Although general dentists perform dental extractions because of severe dental caries or periodontal infection, there were no trials identified which evaluated the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in this group of patients in this setting. All of the trials included in this review included healthy patients undergoing extraction of impacted third molars, often performed by oral surgeons. There is evidence that prophylactic antibiotics reduce the risk of infection, dry socket and pain following third molar extraction and result in an increase in mild and transient adverse effects. It is unclear whether the evidence in this review is generalizable to those with concomitant illnesses or immunodeficiency, or those undergoing the extraction of teeth due to severe caries or periodontitis. However, patients at a higher risk of infection are more likely to benefit from prophylactic antibiotics, because infections in this group are likely to be more frequent, associated with complications and be more difficult to treat. Due to the increasing prevalence of bacteria which are resistant to treatment by currently available antibiotics, clinicians should consider carefully whether treating 12 healthy patients with antibiotics to prevent one infection is likely to do more harm than good.
  • Local interventions for the management of alveolar osteitis (dry socket)
    21 Studien (n =2570)
    Most tooth extractions are undertaken by dentists for a variety of reasons, however, all but three studies included in the present review included participants undergoing extraction of third molars, most of which were undertaken by oral surgeons. There is some evidence that rinsing with chlorhexidine (0.12% and 0.2%) or placing chlorhexidine gel (0.2%) in the sockets of extracted teeth, provides a benefit in preventing dry socket. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effects of the other 10 preventative interventions each evaluated in single studies. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effects of any of the interventions to treat dry socket. The present review found some evidence for the association of minor adverse reactions with use of 0.12%, 0.2% and 2% chlorhexidine mouthrinses, though most studies were not designed to detect the presence of hypersensitivity reactions to mouthwash as part of the study protocol. No adverse events were reported in relation to the use of 0.2% chlorhexidine gel placed directly into a socket (though previous allergy to chlorhexidine was an exclusion criterion in these trials). In view of recent reports in the UK of two cases of serious adverse events associated with irrigation of dry socket with chlorhexidine mouthrinse, it is recommended that all members of the dental team prescribing chlorhexidine products are aware of the potential for both minor and serious adverse side effects.


  • Curcumin for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis
    1 Studie (n= 89)
    Curcumin may be a safe and effective therapy for maintenance of remission in quiescent UC when given as adjunctive therapy along with mesalamine or sulfasalazine. However, further research in the form of a large scale methodologically rigorous randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm any possible benefit of curcumin in quiescent UC.

  • General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease
    14 Studien (n= 182.880)
    General health checks did not reduce morbidity or mortality, neither overall nor for cardiovascular or cancer causes, although the number of new diagnoses was increased. Important harmful outcomes, such as the number of follow-up diagnostic procedures or short term psychological effects, were often not studied or reported and many trials had methodological problems. With the large number of participants and deaths included, the long follow-up periods used, and considering that cardiovascular and cancer mortality were not reduced, general health checks are unlikely to be beneficial.
  • New treatments compared to established treatments in randomized trials
    743 Studien (n= 297.744)
    Society can expect that slightly more than half of new experimental treatments will prove to be better than established treatments when tested in RCTs, but few will be substantially better. This is an important finding for patients (as they contemplate participation in RCTs), researchers (as they plan design of the new trials), and funders (as they assess the 'return on investment'). Although we provide the current best evidence on the question of expected 'success rate' of new versus established treatments consistent with a priori theoretical predictions reflective of 'uncertainty or equipoise hypothesis', it should be noted that our sample represents less than 1% of all available randomized trials; therefore, one should exercise the appropriate caution in interpretation of our findings. In addition, our conclusion applies to publicly funded trials only, as we did not include studies funded by commercial sponsors in our analysis.
  • Venom immunotherapy for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings
    7 Studien (n= 392)
    We found venom immunotherapy using extracted insect venom to be an effective therapy for preventing further allergic reactions to insect stings, which can improve quality of life. The treatment carries a small but significant risk of systemic adverse reaction.

  • Consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) and the completeness of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in medical journals
    Über 15.000 RCTs evaluiert
    Evidence has accumulated to suggest that the reporting of RCTs remains sub-optimal. This review updates a previous systematic review of eight evaluations. The findings of this review are similar to those from the original review and demonstrate that, despite the general inadequacies of reporting of RCTs, journal endorsement of the CONSORT Statement may beneficially influence the completeness of reporting of trials published in medical journals. Future prospective studies are needed to explore the influence of the CONSORT Statement dependent on the extent of editorial policies to ensure adherence to CONSORT guidance.
  • Email for clinical communication between patients/caregivers and healthcare professionals
    9 Studien (n= 1733)
    The evidence base was found to be limited with variable results and missing data, and therefore it was not possible to adequately assess the effect of email for clinical communication between patients/caregivers and healthcare professionals. Recommendations for clinical practice could not be made. Future research should ideally address the issue of missing data and methodological concerns by adhering to published reporting standards. The rapidly changing nature of technology should be taken into account when designing and conducting future studies and barriers to trial development and implementation should also be tackled. Potential outcomes of interest for future research include cost-effectiveness and health service resource use.
  • Email for the provision of information on disease prevention and health promotion
    6 Studien (n= 8372)
    The evidence on the use of email for the provision of information on disease prevention and health promotion was weak, and therefore inadequate to inform clinical practice. The available trials mostly provide inconclusive, or no evidence for the outcomes of interest in this review. Future research needs to use high-quality study designs that take advantage of the most recent developments in information technology, with consideration of the complexity of email as an intervention.
  • Primary care professionals providing non-urgent care in hospital emergency departments
    3 Studien (n= 11203)
    Overall, the evidence from the three included studies is weak, as results are disparate and neither safety nor patient outcomes have been examined. There is insufficient evidence upon which to draw conclusions for practice or policy regarding the effectiveness and safety of care provided to non-urgent patients by GPs versus EPs in the ED to mitigate problems of overcrowding, wait-times and patient flow.
  • Mobile phone messaging for facilitating selfmanagement of longterm illnesses
    4 Studien (n= 182)
    We found some, albeit very limited, indications that in certain cases mobile phone messaging interventions may provide benefit in supporting the self-management of long-term illnesses. However, there are significant information gaps regarding the long-term effects, acceptability, costs, and risks of such interventions. Given the enthusiasm with which so-called mHealth interventions are currently being implemented, further research into these issues is needed.
  • Mobile phone messaging for preventive health care
    4 Studien (n= 1933)
    We found very limited evidence that in certain cases mobile phone messaging interventions may support preventive health care, to improve health status and health behaviour outcomes. However, because of the low number of participants in three of the included studies, combined with study limitations of risk of bias and lack of demonstrated causality, the evidence for these effects is of low to moderate quality. The evidence is of high quality only for interventions aimed at smoking cessation. Furthermore, there are significant information gaps regarding the long-term effects, risks and limitations of, and user satisfaction with, such interventions.
  • Febuxostat for treating chronic gout
    6 Studien (n= 3978)
    Although the incidence of gout flares requiring treatment may be increased in patients taking febuxostat compared to placebo or allopurinol during early treatment, no such increase in gout flares was observed in the long-term follow-up study when compared to allopurinol. Febuxostat at any dose was shown to be beneficial in achieving serum uric acid levels < 6.0 mg/dL and reducing serum uric acid levels in the period from baseline to final visit when compared to placebo and to allopurinol. However, the grade of evidence ranged from low to high, which indicates that further research is needed.
  • Interventions for treating leg ulcers in people with sickle cell disease
    6 Studien (n= 198)
    There is evidence that a topical intervention (RGD peptide matrix) reduced ulcer size in treated participants compared to controls. This evidence of efficacy is limited by the generally high risk of bias associated with these reports.
    We planned to analyse results according to general groups: pharmaceutical interventions (systemic and topical); and non-pharmaceutical interventions (surgical and non-surgical). However, we were unable to pool findings due to the heterogeneity in outcome definitions, and inconsistency between the unit of randomisation and the unit of analysis. This heterogeneity, along with a paucity of identified trials, prevented us performing any meta-analyses.
    This Cochrane review provides some evidence for the effectiveness of one topical intervention - RGD peptide matrix. However, this intervention was assessed as having a high risk of bias due to inadequacies in the single trial report. Other included studies were also assessed as having a high risk of bias. We recommend that readers interpret the trial results with caution. The safety profile of the all interventions was inconclusive.
  • Industry sponsorship and research outcome
    48 Publikationen
    Sponsorship of drug and device studies by the manufacturing company leads to more favorable results and conclusions than sponsorship by other sources. Our analyses suggest the existence of an industry bias that cannot be explained by standard 'Risk of bias' assessments.
  • Recombinant human growth hormone for treating burns and donor sites
    13 Studien (n= 701)
    There is some evidence that using rhGH in people with large burns (more than 40% of the total body surface area) could result in more rapid healing of the burn wound and donor sites in adults and children, and in reduced length of hospital stay, without increased mortality or scarring, but with an increased risk of hyperglycaemia. This evidence is based on studies with small sample sizes and risk of bias and requires confirmation in higher quality, adequately powered trials.
  • Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults
    14 Studien
    Green tea preparations appear to induce a small, statistically non-significant weight loss in overweight or obese adults. Because the amount of weight loss is small, it is not likely to be clinically important. Green tea had no significant effect on the maintenance of weight loss. Of those studies recording information on adverse events, only two identified an adverse event requiring hospitalisation. The remaining adverse events were judged to be mild to moderate.



Zuletzt verändert: 03.01.2013